Table 1

Basic characteristics and metabolic parameters for NGT participants and for 1DEF, 2DEF, and 3DEF

NGT1DEF2DEF3DEF
N (male/female)665 (477/188)898 (695/203)*447 (351/96)101 (73/28)
Basic characteristics
 Age (years)62.4 ± 6.261.7 ± 6.3*62.3 ± 5.963.8 ± 6.2
 BMI (kg/m2)27.1 ± 3.728.0 ± 3.8*28.5 ± 4.330.0 ± 4.1
 HbA1c (mmol/mol)35.3 ± 2.236.8 ± 2.4*39.4 ± 2.740.6 ± 1.6
Glucose, insulin, C-peptide plasma concentrations
 Gb (mmol/L)5.21 ± 0.325.74 ± 0.45*6.00 ± 0.386.15 ± 0.35
 G60 (mmol/L)7.49 ± 1.868.91 ± 2.11*10.19 ± 2.1711.58 ± 1.72
 G120 (mmol/L)5.23 ± 1.175.73 ± 1.40*6.64 ± 1.838.94 ± 0.78
 Gm (mmol/L)6.77 ± 1.097.74 ± 1.26*8.68 ± 1.339.92 ± 1.03
 Ib (pmol/L)48.5 ± 29.462.4 ± 42.5*66.9 ± 39.486.2 ± 51.3
 Im (pmol/L)305.6 ± 195.6392.1 ± 250.1*444.1 ± 305.5552.2 ± 334.4
 CPb (pmol/L)723 ± 253862 ± 307*934 ± 3381,100 ± 415
 CPm (pmol/L)2,503 ± 7622,840 ± 877*3,004 ± 9703,321 ± 986
Insulin sensitivity/resistance
 HOMA-IR (nondim.)1.88 ± 1.142.68 ± 1.9*2.99 ± 1.823.96 ± 2.48
 PREDIM (mg ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1)5.93 ± 1.774.94 ± 1.5*4.39 ± 1.513.17 ± 0.88
BCF and insulin secretion
 GSENS (pmol ⋅ min−1 ⋅ m−2 ⋅ mmol/L−1)124.0 ± 62.4113.6 ± 53.5*99.7 ± 48.190.6 ± 28.9
 RSENS (pmol ⋅ m−2 ⋅ mmol/L−1)1,021 ± 778918 ± 706787 ± 543869 ± 561
 PFR (nondim.)1.74 ± 0.631.80 ± 0.661.70 ± 0.581.41 ± 0.39
 ISRr (pmol ⋅ min−1 ⋅ m−2)277.0 ± 113.4231.4 ± 98.7*194.5 ± 85.8152.7 ± 62.4
 ISRb (pmol ⋅ min−1 ⋅ m−2)90.4 ± 31.2108.5 ± 38.9*116.8 ± 42.0136.8 ± 51.5
 ISRt (nmol ⋅ m−2)46.1 ± 14.752.7 ± 17.3*56.7 ± 18.864.4 ± 19.4
CLins (L ⋅ min−1 ⋅ m−2)1.48 ± 0.471.32 ± 0.40*1.28 ± 0.411.15 ± 0.38
  • Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated. HbA1c (%): 5.4 ± 0.20 (NGT), 5.5 ± 0.22 (1DEF), 5.8 ± 0.25 (2DEF), 5.9 ± 0.15 (3DEF) (from http://www.ngsp.org/convert1.asp). CPb, CPm, basal (fasting) and mean C-peptide, respectively; Gb, G60, G120, Gm, glucose at basal, 60 min, and 120 min and mean glucose; Ib, Im, basal and mean insulin; nondim., nondimensional.

  • * Significant difference for 1DEF vs. NGT,

  • 2DEF vs. 1DEF,

  • 3DEF vs. 2DEF.