Table 4

Basic characteristics and metabolic parameters for NGT participants and for the different groups of participants with single, double, and triple defect (i.e., IFG+IGT+IA1c) who completed the follow-up

NGTIFGIGTIA1cIFG+IGTIFG+IA1cIGT+IA1cIFG+IGT+IA1c
N (males/females)532 (400/132)538 (471/77)43 (32/11)157 (97/60)72 (64/8)253 (215/38)17 (10/7)79 (56/23)
Basic characteristics
 Age (years)62.0 ± 6.160.5 ± 5.963.0 ± 6.663.3 ± 6.562.1 ± 6.061.6 ± 5.664.8 ± 6.063.6 ± 6.3
66.1 ± 6.164.6 ± 5.967.1 ± 6.667.5 ± 6.566.2 ± 5.965.8 ± 5.568.9 ± 5.967.7 ± 6.3
 BMI (kg/m2)27.1 ± 3.628.1 ± 3.528.6 ± 3.627.5 ± 4.428.8 ± 3.928.1 ± 4.028.2 ± 3.229.9 ± 3.8
27.4 ± 3.928.1 ± 3.828.5 ± 4.127.8 ± 4.628.3 ± 3.928.1 ± 4.327.9 ± 3.229.8 ± 3.6
n.s.n.s.n.s.n.s.n.s.n.s.
 HbA1c (mmol/mol)35.2 ± 2.235.9 ± 1.935.9 ± 1.939.8 ± 1.235.7 ± 2.240.5 ± 1.640.2 ± 1.140.5 ± 1.5
38.7 ± 2.839.3 ± 2.539.0 ± 3.142.6 ± 2.339.1 ± 2.443.3 ± 2.543.5 ± 1.843.6 ± 2.9
Glucose, insulin, C-peptide plasma concentrations
 Gb (mmol/L)5.23 ± 0.305.95 ± 0.295.30 ± 0.245.24 ± 0.306.08 ± 0.326.06 ± 0.335.27 ± 0.236.11 ± 0.32
5.62 ± 0.486.12 ± 0.495.69 ± 0.535.71 ± 0.516.21 ± 0.466.32 ± 0.605.64 ± 0.616.44 ± 0.65
 G60 (mmol/L)7.57 ± 1.889.00 ± 2.1310.61 ± 1.678.32 ± 1.9111.72 ± 1.879.83 ± 2.0610.76 ± 1.6111.58 ± 1.59
8.28 ± 2.269.52 ± 2.4910.32 ± 2.369.11 ± 2.2611.36 ± 2.1110.63 ± 2.5611.08 ± 1.7911.86 ± 2.03
n.s.n.s.n.s.n.s.
 G120 (mmol/L)5.21 ± 1.175.56 ± 1.158.72 ± 0.735.44 ± 1.269.05 ± 0.895.72 ± 1.228.97 ± 0.808.89 ± 0.74
5.88 ± 1.576.23 ± 1.647.89 ± 2.546.17 ± 1.737.93 ± 2.246.79 ± 1.978.51 ± 2.369.03 ± 2.26
n.s.n.s.
 Gm (mmol/L)6.82 ± 1.117.81 ± 1.219.07 ± 1.047.24 ± 1.1210.08 ± 1.098.29 ± 1.159.14 ± 0.989.90 ± 0.94
7.45 ± 1.408.27 ± 1.568.87 ± 1.737.98 ± 1.529.61 ± 1.479.00 ± 1.679.37 ± 1.2910.16 ± 1.52
n.s.n.s.n.s.
 Ib (pmol/L)47.2 ± 26.964.9 ± 41.858.9 ± 35.553.2 ± 32.172.5 ± 38.263.9 ± 39.061.4 ± 34.984.1 ± 40.5
59.5 ± 37.168.1 ± 45.971.8 ± 34.365.6 ± 37.472.0 ± 39.267.7 ± 46.371.4 ± 35.791.9 ± 46.0
n.s.n.s.n.s.n.s.
 Im (pmol/L)302.0 ± 190.7396.6 ± 245.1498.4 ± 351.2352.6 ± 220.7528.4 ± 309.9416.8 ± 305.1427.1 ± 257.7535.9 ± 270.5
377.0 ± 283.7450.1 ± 319.8485.7 ± 330.7430.1 ± 261.3516.5 ± 285.74,54.4 ± 288.7485.3 ± 269.4554.5 ± 281.0
n.s.n.s.n.s.n.s.
 CPb (pmol/L)715 ± 239873 ± 305824 ± 276800 ± 3011,001 ± 346906 ± 317868 ± 3291,089 ± 374
826 ± 326921 ± 385962 ± 302919 ± 3481,008 ± 319971 ± 409987 ± 3431,162 ± 364
n.s.
 CPm (pmol/L)2,489 ± 7422,836 ± 8553,151 ± 1,0792,700 ± 8383,318 ± 9762,910 ± 9722,898 ± 1,0743,297 ± 896
2,755 ± 9302,984 ± 9973,177 ± 1,0642,969 ± 9353,264 ± 8383,084 ± 1,0113,199 ± 1,0143,393 ± 876
n.s.n.s.n.s.
Insulin sensitivity/resistance
 HOMA-IR (nondim.)1.84 ± 1.072.87 ± 1.882.32 ± 1.422.08 ± 1.313.28 ± 1.742.89 ± 1.842.42 ± 1.453.83 ± 1.96
2.51 ± 1.633.15 ± 2.303.06 ± 1.532.81 ± 1.673.36 ± 1.983.26 ± 2.463.04 ± 1.674.47 ± 2.49
n.s.n.s.
 PREDIM (mg ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1)5.94 ± 1.724.82 ± 1.393.91 ± 1.015.58 ± 1.683.45 ± 1.064.78 ± 1.553.90 ± 0.953.16 ± 0.77
5.19 ± 1.724.55 ± 1.593.92 ± 1.184.71 ± 1.583.87 ± 1.464.39 ± 1.713.80 ± 1.103.12 ± 0.93
n.s.n.s.n.s.
BCF and insulin secretion
 GSENS (pmol ⋅ min−1 ⋅ m−2 ⋅ mmol/L−1)122.5 ± 63.5113.7 ± 53.899.3 ± 38.5112.3 ± 48.091.8 ± 44.2101.8 ± 51.186.6 ± 38.587.6 ± 25.6
123.2 ± 59.8115.8 ± 58.9107.9 ± 40.4116.3 ± 59.098.8 ± 48.5101.6 ± 47.583.5 ± 19.892.9 ± 35.6
n.s.n.s.n.s.n.s.n.s.n.s.n.s.n.s.
 RSENS (pmol ⋅ m−2 ⋅ mmol/L−1)987 ± 720911 ± 6901,030 ± 544876 ± 753947 ± 530739 ± 553832 ± 509887 ± 555
932 ± 634865 ± 6771,040 ± 632812 ± 565865 ± 479700 ± 5121,000 ± 652748 ± 448
n.s.n.s.n.s.n.s.n.s.n.s.n.s.n.s.
 PFR (nondim.)1.75 ± 0.641.86 ± 0.601.25 ± 0.271.71 ± 0.771.38 ± 0.351.85 ± 0.611.24 ± 0.341.46 ± 0.38
1.83 ± 0.741.94 ± 0.701.56 ± 0.461.90 ± 0.691.78 ± 0.662.05 ± 0.861.65 ± 0.811.54 ± 0.49
n.s.
 ISRr (pmol ⋅ min−1 ⋅ m−2)271.2 ± 109.2221.9 ± 92.0178.1 ± 63.2264.3 ± 106.2144.5 ± 64.6206.1 ± 85.8178.6 ± 55.4157.4 ± 61.4
240.8 ± 106.9202.2 ± 97.1193.7 ± 85.3236.0 ± 101.1167.5 ± 84.9193.4 ± 111.0191.8 ± 80.0159.8 ± 77.9
n.s.n.s.n.s.
 ISRb (pmol ⋅ min−1 ⋅ m−2)89.6 ± 29.7110.7 ± 38.7102.6 ± 35.599.4 ± 37.7125.3 ± 44.4113.9 ± 39.6108.9 ± 44.2135.5 ± 46.1
102.2 ± 39.8114.5 ± 47.3118.7 ± 37.9112.7 ± 43.0124.6 ± 40.4120.3 ± 50.4121.3 ± 44.4143.2 ± 44.5
n.s.n.s.
 ISRt (nmol ⋅ m−2)45.8 ± 14.352.3 ± 16.662.8 ± 21.950.3 ± 16.765.5 ± 19.254.1 ± 18.457.5 ± 22.264.0 ± 17.9
50.8 ± 18.055.3 ± 19.461.3 ± 21.355.3 ± 18.762.5 ± 16.257.8 ± 19.562.9 ± 20.865.4 ± 18.1
n.s.n.s.n.s.
CLins (L ⋅ min−1 ⋅ m−2)1.48 ± 0.471.29 ± 0.391.31 ± 0.461.39 ± 0.411.23 ± 0.421.29 ± 0.411.33 ± 0.461.12 ± 0.34
1.35 ± 0.411.25 ± 0.411.24 ± 0.391.26 ± 0.401.20 ± 0.401.25 ± 0.391.25 ± 0.421.10 ± 0.32
n.s.n.s.n.s.n.s.
  • Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated. For each parameter, we report baseline value (top), value at 48 months (middle), and indication of significant variation (↑ or ↓ for significant increase or decrease, respectively, and n.s. [not significant] otherwise) (bottom). HbA1c (%) value at baseline and 48 months, respectively: 5.4 ± 0.20, 5.7 ± 0.26 (NGT); 5.4 ± 0.17, 5.7 ± 0.23 (IFG); 5.4 ± 0.17, 5.7 ± 0.28 (IGT); 5.8 ± 0.11, 6.0 ± 0.21 (IA1c); 5.4 ± 0.20, 5.7 ± 0.22 (IFG+IGT); 5.9 ± 0.15, 6.1 ± 0.23 (IFG+IA1c); 5.8 ± 0.10, 6.1 ± 0.16 (IGT+IA1c); 5.9 ± 0.14, 6.1 ± 0.27 (IFG+IGT+IA1c) (from http://www.ngsp.org/convert1.asp). CPb, CPm, basal (fasting) and mean C-peptide, respectively; Gb, G60, G120, Gm, glucose at basal, 60 min, and 120 min and mean glucose; Ib, Im, basal and mean insulin; nondim., nondimensional.