Table 2

MS methods of detection for metabolites of interest in diabetes research

Metabolites/pathwaysMethodConditions/commentsReferences
Acyl-carnitinesLC-MS+ ion mode, C18 column, QQQ (112,113)
Acyl-CoAsLC-MS+ ion mode, C18 column, QQQ (114,115)
Acyl-glycerolsLC-MS+ ion mode, silica column, QTrap (116,117)
Amino acidsGC-MSSIM, EZ:faast Kit (Phenomenex Inc., Torrance, CA) (118)
Bile acidsLC-MS− ion mode, C18 column, QQQ (119)
Cholesterol estersLC-MS+ ion mode, silica column, QTrap (120)
EicosanoidsLC-MS− ion mode, chiral column, QQQ (121,122)
Fatty acidsGC-MSDerivatize with FAME or PFB bromide (123)
GlycerophospholipidsLC-MS+ and – ion mode, silica column, QQQ or QTrap (124)
GlycolysisLC-MS+ ion mode, C18 column, QQQ (125)
− ion mode, HILIC column, TOF (16)
Lipid profilingLC-MS+ and – ion mode, QQQ or TripleTOF (126)
QTrap (127)
Lipidmaps.org/protocols
NucleotidesLC-MS− ion mode, ODS column, QQQ or Ion Trap (128)
Organic acidsLC-MS+ ion mode, C18 column, QQQ (125)
GC-MS− ion mode, HILIC column, TOF (16)
SIM, derivatize with MTBSTFA (129)
Organic cofactorsLC-MS+ ion mode, HILIC column, QQQ (130)
− ion mode, HILIC column, TOF (16)
Oxidized amino acidsLC-MS+ ion mode, C18 column, QQQ (131)
Oxidized lipidsLC-MS− ion mode, C18 column, QQQ or QTrap (132,133)
Pentose phosphateLC-MS+ ion mode, C18 column, QQQ (130)
SphingolipidsLC-MS+ ion mode, C18, amino and silica columns, QQQ or QTrap (134)
Steroid hormonesLC-MS+ ion mode, C18 column, QQQ (135)
SterolsLC-MS+ ion mode, C18 column, QTrap (136)
Urea cycleGC-MSDerivatize with BSTFA/TMCS (137)
GC-MS and LC-MSReview of methods (138)
Uremic solutesLC-MS+ ion mode, C18 column, QQQ (8)
  • BSTFA/TMCS, N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide/trimethylchlorosilane; FAME, fatty acid methyl ester; MTBSTFA, N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide; ODS, octadecylsilyl; PFB, pentafluorobenzyl; QTrap, quadrupole ion trap; SIM, selected ion monitoring.