Table 2

Detection of enterovirus protein, enterovirus RNA, and expression of class I HLA molecules in the pancreata of newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients

Enterovirus VP1 protein expressionEnterovirus genomeClass I HLA expression
MethodologyIHCEnterovirus-specific RT-PCRRNA sequencingIHC
TissuePancreatic isletsSupernatant from cultured purified pancreatic isletsSnap-frozen pancreas
30 mgSnap-frozen pancreas
30 mgPancreatic islets
LaboratoryTampereExeterUppsalaTampereTampere and UppsalaOsloExeter
Case
 1PositivePositiveNegativeNegativeNegativeNegativeHyperexpression
 2PositivePositivePositive*PositiveNegativeNegativeHyperexpression
 3PositivePositiveNegativeNegativeNegativeNegativeHyperexpression
 4PositiveNegativePositive*PositiveNegativeNegativeHyperexpression
 5PositivePositivePositivePositiveNegativeNegativeHyperexpression
 6PositivePositiveNegative§PositivePositiveNegativeHyperexpression
  • IHC, immunohistochemistry.

  • *Positive day 1 and 3.

  • †Positive day 1.

  • ‡Positive day 3.

  • §Positive in RNA extracted from culturing of the remaining cells, containing both exocrine and an unknown number of islets.