Table 4

Sex-stratified observational and IV analysis based on a genetic score of the association of adiposity with cardiovascular risk factors

WomenMen
nβ (95%CI)P*PIV-obs*nβ (95% CI)P*PIV-obs*Pdiff*
Observational analyses
 Diastolic blood pressure59,7380.22 (0.20–0.24)2.5 × 10−10157,4920.29 (0.27–0.32)8.8 × 10−1063.3 × 10−5
 Systolic blood pressure59,8590.21 (0.18–0.23)3.4 × 10−7757,9220.24 (0.22–0.27)1.76 × 10−940.01
 Fasting glucose35,8230.18 (0.15–0.21)2.9 × 10−2633,2880.20 (0.15–0.24)1.2 × 10−170.48
 2-h post-OGTT glucose10,2480.16 (0.05–0.28)0.0111,9560.22 (0.15–0.28)9.51 × 10−110.41
 HbA1c15,6760.17 (0.12–0.21)9.1 × 10−1413,7750.18 (0.09–0.27)5.6 × 10−50.76
 ln fasting insulin22,1370.42 (0.38–0.46)7.6 × 10−9818,0270.58 (0.52–0.65)1.1 × 10−732.0 × 10−5
 ln CRP40,0720.37 (0.34–0.40)5.0 × 10−10731,8880.30 (0.27–0.33)9.3 × 10−710.002
 ln IL-66,6520.15 (0.08–0.22)8.0 × 10−55,2260.10 (0.05–0.16)2.0 × 10−40.31
 HDL-C49,949−0.27 (−0.30 to −0.25)5.2 × 10−15043,039−0.29 (−0.31 to −0.27)1.4 × 10−1940.36
 LDL-C47,6190.11 (0.08–0.13)2.5 × 10−2039,1740.11 (0.07–0.15)1.8 × 10−80.73
 Total cholesterol55,2230.06 (0.04–0.08)3.6 × 10−1052,5180.11 (0.08–0.14)1.5 × 10−132.6 × 10−16
 ln triglycerides52,8730.26 (0.24–0.28)4.5 × 10−18248,8360.39 (0.36–0.41)4.2 × 10−2040.005
 ln ALT24,0130.16 (0.13–0.19)1.9 × 10−2821,4600.32 (0.28–0.36)1.6 × 10−555.9 × 10−11
 ln GGT38,1270.17 (0.15–0.20)2.3 × 10−4833,7320.31 (0.28–0.33)2.2 × 10−962.16 × 10−12
IV analyses
 Diastolic blood pressure34,3330.07 (−0.04 to 0.18)0.240.0132,6640.23 (0.06–0.40)0.0080.440.11
 Systolic blood pressure34,4590.10 (−0.01 to 0.20)0.060.0533,0940.21 (0.04–0.37)0.020.650.29
 Fasting glucose22,0660.09 (−0.03 to 0.21)0.140.1515,1040.10 (−0.06 to 0.26)0.230.240.93
 2-h post-OGTT glucose2,3600.18 (−0.22 to 0.57)0.390.952,2250.08 (−0.55 to 0.72)0.800.680.81
 HbA1c14,3320.13 (−0.01 to 0.28)0.060.6912,5690.28 (0.06–0.51)0.010.410.28
 ln fasting insulin14,0850.29 (0.14–0.45)3.0 × 10−40.1210,5180.36 (0.02–0.70)0.040.190.73
 ln CRP27,1070.29 (0.09–0.49)0.0040.4520,6740.26 (0.12–0.40)3.0 × 10−40.590.79
 ln IL-65,8400.38 (0.14–0.62)0.0020.074,4450.08 (−0.22 to 0.37)0.620.860.11
 HDL-C31,201−0.34 (−0.45 to −0.23)7.9 × 10−100.2227,146−0.31 (−0.46 to −0.16)4.0 × 10−50.750.74
 LDL-C29,2500.10 (−0.01 to 0.22)0.080.9623,5950.04 (−0.09 to 0.17)0.600.260.45
 Total cholesterol31,515−0.02 (−0.14 to 0.09)0.680.9627,7960.03 (−0.13 to 0.18)0.740.110.88
 ln triglycerides29,7440.25 (0.14–0.37)2.8 × 10−50.1624,6600.24 (0.06–0.42)0.010.300.61
 ln ALT14,7010.11 (−0.04 to 0.26)0.140.519,2260.09 (−0.14 to 0.32)0.430.050.90
 ln GGT16,7940.13 (−0.06 to 0.32)0.180.6410,0370.17 (−0.09 to 0.43)0.200.320.80
  • All models were adjusted for age. Pdiff, difference between men and women (only significant P values are shown); PIV-obs, P value from test of difference between observational and IV analyses; β (95% CI), effect per SD change of BMI on trait (SD scale); ln, transformed to natural logarithm scale.

  • *A nominal P value of <0.022 is considered significant at a 5% FDR level.