Table 2

Metformin treatment alleviates maternal type 2 diabetes–induced NTD formation

GroupFasting glucose (mmol/L)Random glucose (mmol/L)Number of embryosResorption rate (%)NTD rate (%)
Ctrl 1 + Met (n = 6)5.20 ± 0.257.09 ± 0.31502 (3.8)0 (0.0)
Ctrl 2 + Met (n = 8)5.38 ± 0.227.67 ± 0.34623 (4.6)0 (0.0)
DM (n = 10)8.34 ± 0.55*9.46 ± 0.27*6715 (18.3)**8 (11.9)*
DM + Met (n = 10)6.05 ± 0.338.03 ± 0.25649 (12.3)1 (1.5)
  • Data are mean ± SD unless otherwise indicated. Ctrl 1 + Met group fed normal diet and treated with metformin, Ctrl 2 + Met group fed 60% fat diet and treated with metformin, DM group fed HFD, and DM + Met group fed HFD and treated with metformin during pregnancy.

  • *DM group significantly different compared with the DM + Met, Ctrl 1 + Met, and Ctrl 2 + Met groups.

  • **DM group significantly different compared with the Ctrl 1 + Met and Ctrl 2 + Met groups but not significantly different compared with the DM + Met group. Statistical differences were analyzed by the Tukey test or χ2 test.