Table 2

Absolute, total, and relative responses of glucose, insulin, and GLP-1 by glucose tolerance status among women in the Danish ADDITION-PRO study population

NGTi-IFGi-IGTIFG&IGTType 2 diabetes*PPadjusted**
N402108615755
Plasma glucose
 0 min (mmol/L)5.5 (0.3)6.4 (0.2)a5.7 (0.3)ab6.5 (0.3)ac7.3 (1.0)abcd<0.001<0.001
 30 min (mmol/L)8.1 (1.4)9.7 (1.3)a9.4 (1.2)a10.2 (1.2)abc11.1 (2.2)abcd<0.001<0.001
 120 min (mmol/L)5.6 (1.1)6.2 (1.1)a8.9 (1.0)ab9.0 (0.9)ab10.3 (3.3)abcd<0.001<0.001
 tAUC0–30 (pmol/L × min)203 (168; 245)241 (209; 274)a227 (197; 256)ab249 (222; 286)ac272 (220; 357)abcd<0.001<0.001
 tAUC0–120 (pmol/L × min)815 (635; 1,015)956 (788; 1,113)a1,051 (921; 1,206)ab1,109 (995; 1,290)abc1,213 (860; 1,643)abcd<0.001<0.001
 rAUC0–30 (fold increase)1.23 (1.05; 1.45)1.25 (1.06; 1.39)1.32 (1.16; 1.49)ab1.29 (1.17; 1.46)a1.26 (0.89; 1.49)c<0.001<0.001
 rAUC0–120 (fold increase)1.23 (1.00; 1.51)1.24 (1.02; 1.43)1.53 (1.33; 1.73)ab1.43 (1.29; 1.62)abc1.40 (0.87; 1.92)abc<0.001<0.001
Serum insulin
 0 min (pmol/L)29.7 (12.0; 73.0)42.5 (18.0; 94.0)a37.2 (12.0; 99.0)a49.5 (18.0; 158.0)a59.5 (21.0; 174.0)abc<0.001<0.001
 30 min (pmol/L)201 (73; 553)231 (91; 635)217 (85; 614)202 (59; 563)229 (83; 503)0.2110.452
 120 min (pmol/L)141 (48; 371)203 (64; 493)a319 (138; 970)ab345 (114; 1,000)ab381 (123; 1,740)ab<0.001<0.001
 tAUC0–30 (pmol/L × min)3,556 (1,500; 9,030)4,166 (1,695; 9,975)3,884 (1,617; 10,671)3,939 (1,155; 11,250)4,640 (1,620; 9,825)0.0020.513
 tAUC0–120 (pmol/L × min)19,973 (8,707; 48,682)24,535 (9,915; 56,685)a28,840 (14,212; 83,706)ab29,919 (10,605; 78,660)ab34,956 (12,075; 107,925)ab<0.001<0.001
 rAUC0–30 (fold increase)4.00 (1.93; 8.89)3.27 (1.84; 5.49)a3.50 (1.89; 8.96)a2.65 (0.95; 6.00)abc2.60 (1.30; 5.33)abc<0.001<0.001
 rAUC0–120 (fold increase)5.62 (2.86; 11.97)4.81 (2.72; 8.29)a6.49 (3.23; 14.99)b5.03 (2.62; 9.13)c4.89 (1.92; 8.11)c<0.0010.010
Plasma GLP-1
 0 min (pmol/L)8.7 (1.0; 21.0)10.7 (1.0; 22.0)11.0 (3.0; 22.0)9.5 (1.0; 24.0)9.0 (1.0; 21.0)0.0820.240
 30 min (pmol/L)30.7 (11.0; 96.5)29.3 (9.0; 95.0)31.3 (13.5; 76.5)25.7 (11.0; 65.0)30.0 (10.0; 84.0)0.4440.303
 120 min (pmol/L)22.8 (9.0; 57.0)22.3 (10.0; 52.0)21.7 (10.0; 49.0)18.3 (9.0; 35.0)a18.0 (6.0; 41.0)a0.0090.041
 tAUC0–30 (pmol/L × min)621 (195; 1,725)624 (210; 1,650)658 (285; 1,470)556 (270; 1,155)613 (165; 1,530)0.6800.684
 tAUC0–120 (pmol/L × min)3,124 (1,230; 7,860)3,029 (1,200; 7,740)3,131 (1,455; 7,725)2,591 (1,455; 4,935)2,849 (930; 7,695)0.2010.191
 rAUC0–30 (fold increase)2.36 (1.13; 8.50)1.94 (1.14; 5.92)a2.00 (1.05; 4.50)a1.97 (1.06; 13.5)2.31 (1.07; 7.20)b0.0140.014
 rAUC0–120 (fold increase)2.97 (1.21; 12.00)2.35 (1.26; 8.88)a2.38 (1.18; 5.81)a2.29 (1.01; 16.5)a2.68 (1.04; 9.38)0.0020.005
  • Data are means (SD) or geometric means (95% CI).

  • *Screen-detected type 2 diabetes.

  • **Adjusted for age and BMI.

  • aP < 0.05 vs. NGT;

  • bP < 0.05 vs. i-IFG;

  • cP < 0.05 vs. i-IGT;

  • dP < 0.05 vs. IFG&IGT.