Table 3

Glucose, insulin, and FFA response to the meal challenges (300 vs. 600 carbohydrate kcal/meal) and β-cell function parameters for the IS and IR groups

IS (n = 64)IR (n = 79)P§
300 kcal600 kcal300 kcal600 kcal
AUCG (mol · L−1 · h)0.66 ± 0.070.69 ± 0.121.02 ± 0.061.59 ± 010*
AUCI (mol · L−1 · h)155 ± 24255 ± 51371 ± 20659 ± 46*
AUCFFA (mol · L−1 · h)−69.2 ± 11.9−140.2 ± 12.8−100.6 ± 10.7−173.2 ± 11.5
ISR5mM (pmol · min−1 · m−2)97 (49)90 (33)118 (54)116 (52)*
Total IS (nmol · m−2)206 (75)283 (90)312 (113)448 (165)
β-GS (pmol · min−1 · m−2 · [mmol/L]−1)90 (44)113 (55)108 (50)122 (67)
Rate sensitivity (nmol · m−2 · [mmol/L]−1)1.11 (0.67)1.11 (0.90)1.41 (0.83)1.33 (1.15)*
Potentiation (ratio)1.47 (0.71)2.22 (1.05)1.42 (0.54)1.79 (1.08)
  • Data are means ± SE or median (interquartile range). Potentiation (ratio) = (1–14 h)/(0–20 min). AUCG, glucose AUC; AUCI, insulin AUC; β-GS, β-cell glucose sensitivity; ISR5mM, insulin secretion at 5 mmol/L glucose; total IS, total insulin secretion.

  • §ANCOVA adjusted for sequence of carbohydrate loading days (i.e., 300 day → 600 day vs. 600 day → 300 day).

  • *Group = IR > IS (P < 0.0001).

  • †Group × load = P < 0.0001.

  • ‡Group = IR < or > IS (P < 0.01); load = 600 > 300 (P < 0.0001).