Table 3

Absolute, total, and relative responses of glucose, insulin, and GLP-1 by glucose tolerance status among men in the Danish ADDITION-PRO study population

NGTi-IFGi-IGTIFG&IGTType 2 diabetes*PPadjusted**
N3721795169108
Plasma glucose
 0 min (mmol/L)5.6 (0.4)6.4 (0.2)a5.7 (0.5)ab6.5 (0.2)ac7.3 (1.0)abcd<0.001<0.001
 30 min (mmol/L)8.5 (1.3)9.8 (1.2)a9.0 (1.4)ab9.9 (0.9)ac11.5 (1.8)abcd<0.001<0.001
 120 min (mmol/L)5.6 (1.1)6.1 (1.0)a8.8 (0.8)ab9.2 (0.8)ab10.8 (3.1)abcd<0.001<0.001
 tAUC0–30 (pmol/L × min)211 (177; 248)242 (213; 278)a219 (179; 257)ab246 (225; 278)ac281 (224; 344)abcd<0.001<0.001
 tAUC0–120 (pmol/L × min)843 (693; 1,009)954 (803; 1,100)a1,015 (887; 1,174)ab1,105 (995; 1,239)abc1,272 (1,013; 1,651)abcd<0.001<0.001
 rAUC0–30 (fold increase)1.26 (1.09; 1.44)1.26 (1.11; 1.41)1.29 (1.13; 1.54)ab1.26 (1.15; 1.41)1.29 (1.14; 1.44)ab0.0280.024
 rAUC0–120 (fold increase)1.26 (1.05; 1.49)1.23 (1.05; 1.40)1.49 (1.32; 1.71)ab1.42 (1.27; 1.57)abc1.46 (1.18; 1.78)ab<0.001<0.001
Serum insulin
 0 min (pmol/L)31.4 (12.0; 81.0)41.0 (16.0; 103.0)a47.7 (21.0; 150.0)a52.5 (17.0; 119.0)ab58.4 (21.0; 145.0)ab<0.001<0.001
 30 min (pmol/L)210 (78; 595)219 (74; 559)230 (71; 1,060)242 (76; 724)226 (78; 596)0.4890.660
 120 min (pmol/L)127 (38; 379)171 (51; 571)a388 (153; 1,490)ab409 (137; 1,370)ab346 (93; 1,280)ab<0.001<0.001
 tAUC0–30 (pmol/L × min)3,693 (1,485; 9,615)4,000 (1,470; 9,735)4,354 (1,515; 17,310)4,487 (1,545; 12,825)4,370 (1,605; 10,170)0.0160.969
 tAUC0–120 (pmol/L × min)19,995 (8,175; 55,725)22,817 (9,165; 58,920)33,566 (12,105; 122,160)ab34,765 (13,950; 116,580)ab31,493 (11,295; 85,680)ab<0.001<0.001
 rAUC0–30 (fold increase)3.94 (2.09; 7.81)3.28 (1.81; 7.18)a3.04 (1.47; 6.14)a2.85 (1.65; 5.20)ab2.5 (1.39; 4.76)abc<0.001<0.001
 rAUC0–120 (fold increase)5.34 (2.77; 10.16)4.68 (2.59; 9.53)a5.86 (3.14; 11.24)b5.52 (2.92; 12.28)b4.5 (2.34; 10.18)acd<0.001<0.001
Plasma GLP-1
 0 min (pmol/L)10.4 (2.0; 23.0)10.3 (2.0; 24.0)11.0 (4.0; 21.0)9.5 (1.0; 24.0)11.1 (2.0; 21.0)0.6920.554
 30 min (pmol/L)25.7 (10.0; 76.0)25.0 (10.0; 72.0)27.6 (10.0; 116.0)25.3 (10.0; 55.0)26.9 (10.0; 80.0)0.7860.917
 120 min (pmol/L)18.4 (8.0; 40.0)16.7 (7.0; 35.0)18.2 (8.0; 36.0)15.5 (6.0; 32.0)a16.0 (8.0; 31.0)a0.0120.045
 tAUC0–30 (pmol/L × min)563 (210; 1,410)550 (195; 1,305)592 (210; 1,560)552 (165; 1,095)592 (195; 1,440)0.8120.897
 tAUC0–120 (pmol/L × min)2,612 (1,095; 5,910)2,479 (1,035; 5,580)2,680 (1,140; 7,365)2,466 (1,050; 4,695)2,582 (1,095; 6,615)0.7480.734
 rAUC0–30 (fold increase)1.80 (1.05; 5.00)1.78 (1.00; 6.50)1.79 (1.05; 7.22)1.95 (1.00; 5.50)1.78 (1.05; 5.19)0.8160.633
 rAUC0–120 (fold increase)2.09 (1.08; 6.56)2.01 (0.99; 9.03)2.03 (1.10; 9.25)2.18 (0.90; 9.25)1.95 (1.03; 6.27)0.7340.770
  • Data are means (SD) or geometric means (95% CI).

  • *Screen-detected type 2 diabetes.

  • **Adjusted for age and BMI.

  • aP < 0.05 vs. NGT;

  • bP < 0.05 vs. i-IFG;

  • cP < 0.05 vs. i-IGT;

  • dP < 0.05 vs. IFG&IGT.