Table 1

Characteristics of the MZ twins

VariableWeight-discordant MZ pairs
(ΔBMI >3 kg/m2, n = 26 [n = 9 males, n = 17 females])Weight-concordant MZ pairs
(ΔBMI <3 kg/m2, n = 14 [n = 9 males, n = 5 females])
Lean co-twinObese co-twinP value * Both co-twins
Age (years)29.9 ± 0.929.9 ± 0.90.3331.6 ± 0.6
Weight (kg)75.4 ± 3.593.3 ± 4.0<0.000179.3 ± 2.5
Height (cm)171.9 ± 2.0172.2 ± 1.90.38171.5 ± 2.0
BMI (kg/m2)25.3 ± 0.931.3 ± 1.0<0.000126.9 ± 0.7
Body fat (%)32.3 ± 1.841.1 ± 1.3<0.000129.2 ± 1.7
Fat (kg)24.9 ± 2.238.2 ± 2.1<0.000123.5 ± 1.7
Fat-free mass (kg)48.0 ± 2.152.1 ± 2.50.000153.4 ± 2.0
SAT (dm3)3,813.7 ± 416.86,358.9 ± 540.4<0.00013,256.3 ± 261.2
VAT (dm3)790.2 ± 178.91,643.7 ± 247.4<0.00011,065.2 ± 130.0
Liver fat (%)1.12 ± 0.324.52 ± 0.99<0.00012.87 ± 0.98
Adipocyte volume (pL)355.6 ± 34547 ± 590.0008412.0 ± 46.2
Adipocyte number (1013)8.4 ± 0.748.3 ± 0.600.957.82 ± 0.60
fP glucose (mmol/L) 5.1 ± 0.15.3 ± 0.10.175.4 ± 0.1
fS insulin (mU/L) 4.9 ± 0.58.5 ± 1.20.00115.5 ± 0.6
HOMA index 1.1 ± 0.12.1 ± 0.30.00101.3 ± 0.2
Matsuda index 8.6 ± 0.96.0 ± 0.70.00899.9 ± 1.3
AUC insulin in OGTT (mU/L)87.6 ± 8.0129.3 ± 24.60.03177.5 ± 10.9
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.4 ± 0.24.7 ± 0.20.144.5 ± 0.2
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)2.6 ± 0.13.0 ± 0.20.0342.8 ± 0.2
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.6 ± 0.11.3 ± 0.10.00041.3 ± 0.1
Triglycerides (mmol/L)0.94 ± 0.11.32 ± 0.20.0141.02 ± 0.13
fP leptin (mg/mL)18.9 ± 4.134.6 ± 5.50.001528.4 ± 10.2
fP adiponectin (µg/mL)2.8 ± 0.32.2 ± 0.20.00232.2 ± 0.1
fS hs-CRP (mg/dL)2.6 ± 0.74.0 ± 1.10.0651.2 ± 0.3
Adipsin (ng/mL)1,190 ± 451,310 ± 470.00631,070 ± 71
Total physical activity8.9 ± 0.28.3 ± 0.20.2138.9 ± 0.3
Sport index3.2 ± 0.22.7 ± 0.20.0613.3 ± 0.2
Leisure index2.8 ± 0.12.8 ± 0.10.8372.8 ± 0.1
Work index2.8 ± 0.12.8 ± 0.10.4662.8 ± 0.1
  • Data represent the mean ± SE. AUC, area under the curve; fP, fasting plasma; fS, fasting serum; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test.

  • * Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare values of the leaner vs. the heavier co-twin.

  • n = 25 obesity-discordant MZ pairs.