Table 1

Cohort characteristics

VariableUnrelated healthy control subjectsNew-onset patientsSeropositiveSeronegative FDRs
(n = 23)(n = 35)(n = 21)(n = 32)
Females/males, n/n9/1416/1912/914/18
Age (years), median (range)12 (4–24)11 (2–20)9 (4–49)12 (3–45)
HLA, n (%)
 3 alone5 (22)10 (29)5 (24)11 (34)
 4 alone3 (13)13 (37)12 (57)8 (25)
 3 plus 44 (17)9 (26)4 (19)10 (31)
 x/x11 (48)3 (8)03 (10)
Autoantibodies, n (%)
 Zero2 (6)032 (100)
 One12 (34)5 (24)0
 Two to four21 (60)16 (76)0
HbA1c, median (range)7.9 (5.5–15.0)5.0 (4.2–5.3)
Age at onset (years), median (range)10 (2–20)
Disease duration (weeks), median (range)5.1 (0.3–17.3)
Impaired glucose metabolism, n (%)5 (24)