Table 1

Clinical and biochemical characteristics and echocardiographic features

VariablesControl subjects (n = 20)Patients with T2DM (n = 46)P value
Age, years54 ± 1055 ± 90.583
BMI, kg/m228.6 ± 2.829.6 ± 5.70.463
Male sex, %45500.714
Diabetes duration, years (IQR)7 (1–8)
Heart rate, bpm66 ± 1368 ± 80.377
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg128 ± 12129 ± 80.583
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg74 ± 876 ± 70.311
Plasma fasting glucose, mmol/L4.9 ± 0.58.9 ± 3.1<0.001
Glycated hemoglobin, % (mmol/mol)5.4 ± 0.3 (37 ± 3)7.5 ± 0.2 (57 ± 15)<0.001
Plasma triglycerides, mmol/L1.59 ± 0.681.60 ± 0.780.931
Plasma free fatty acids, mmol/L0.38 ± 0.230.61 ± 0.360.017
Total cholesterol, mmol/L5.6 ± 0.93.9 ± 0.9<0.001
HDL, mmol/L1.53 ± 0.611.18 ± 0.290.005
LDL, mmol/L3.41 ± 0.532.04 ± 0.74<0.001
Creatinine, mmol/L72 ± 1965 ± 170.228
Hematocrit, %41 ± 442 ± 30.501
Urine albumin, mg/L (n = 32)16 ± 30
Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, mg/mmol (n = 32)1.7 ± 3
Medications, n (%)
 Metformin41 (89)
 Sulphonylurea14 (30)
 Aspirin5 (11)
 Statin34 (74)
 ACE-I12 (26)
Echocardiographic features
Mitral in-flow E-to-A ratio1.17 ± 0.380.99 ± 0.250.038
  • Values are means ± standard deviations or percentages unless otherwise indicated. ACE-I, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; E-to-A ratio, transmitral early-to-late diastolic velocity ratio; IQR, interquartile range.