Table 1

Characteristics of the subjects

CharacteristicCRControlP
Baseline (N = 11)Post (N = 11)Baseline (N = 9)Post (N = 9)GroupTimeInteraction
Age, year55.3 ± 1.852.7 ± 1.6
Height, cm169.6 ± 2.4177.8 ± 3.9
Weight, kg101.8 ± 4.991.3 ± 4.6****109 ± 7.4110.3 ± 7.70.1401<0.001<0.001
Weight % change−10.1 ± 1.2+0.8 ± 0.6
BMI, kg/m235.2 ± 1.331.8 ± 1.1****34.4 ± 1.434.6 ± 1.50.6103<0.001<0.001
Glucose, mg/dL106.6 ± 2.5102.3 ± 2.2105.0 ± 3.3105.3 ± 4.10.87160.11610.0767
Insulin, μIU/mL12.7 ± 1.86.7 ± 0.9****11.3 ± 2.511.2 ± 2.30.5616<0.002<0.002
FFA, mmol/L0.38 ± 0.040.45 ± 0.050.38 ± 0.060.39 ± 0.030.56200.18760.3880
β-Hydroxybutyrate, mmol/L0.23 ± 0.010.28 ± 0.01***0.24 ± 0.010.25 ± 0.010.38260.00120.0387
Body fat, %45.9 ± 1.642.4 ± 1.5****43.9 ± 2.044.3 ± 1.80.9918<0.001<0.001
Lean mass, kg52.5 ± 3.250.3 ± 2.9**59.5 ± 5.359.1 ± 5.00.18540.00340.0347
Fat mass, kg39.6 ± 4.636.8 ± 2.2****45.9 ± 3.246.2 ± 3.20.1246<0.001<0.001
Visceral fat, cm214.6 ± 2.211.4 ± 1.3*12.1 ± 1.613.9 ± 1.90.98910.41320.0081
Subcutaneous fat, cm245.1 ± 2.636.9 ± 2.6****43.2 ± 3.944.2 ± 4.10.57220.00780.0015
REE, kcal/day1,668 ± 931,615 ± 921,865 ± 1281,867 ± 1090.13560.49250.4745
VO2peak, L/min1.9 ± 0.12.2 ± 0.2
  • Measurements were made before randomization (baseline) and again after 16 weeks of CR or CON in the fasting state. Means ± SEM are given, and a two-way (group, time) repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare outcomes across groups. Precise P values are given for the ANOVA. When a significant interaction was found, a Sidak post hoc test was performed.

  • *P < 0.05;

  • **P < 0.01;

  • ***P < 0.001;

  • ****P < 0.0001.