Table 2

Metabolic flexibility

Caloric restrictionControlP
BaselinePostBaselinePostGroupTimeInteraction
RER
 Basal0.864 ± 0.0060.827 ± 0.015*0.833 ± 0.0050.850 ± 0.0120.75130.27560.0095
 Clamp0.917 ± 0.0130.933 ± 0.0220.918 ± 0.020.921 ± 0.0220.65370.71040.9356
 Δ0.053 ± 0.0160.106 ± 0.025*0.084 ± 0.0190.071 ± 0.0280.95970.11940.0147
CHO oxidation (μmol ⋅ kgFFM−1 ⋅ min−1)
 Basal16.8 ± 1.313.9 ± 2.213.3 ± 0.815.1 ± 1.30.51650.70660.0704
 Clamp21.9 ± 1.522.3 ± 2.822.1 ± 2.522.2 ± 2.60.98490.86530.9051
Nonoxidative glucose disposal (μmol ⋅ kgFFM−1 ⋅ min−1)
 Basal0.1 ± 1.40.9 ± 2.24.9 ± 4.42.5 ± 2.50.29490.78940.5297
 Clamp15.3 ± 6.331.5 ± 4.9**28.2 ± 5.928.9 ± 6.00.51410.00970.0157
Lipid oxidation (μmol ⋅ kgFFM−1 ⋅ min−1)
 Basal1.2 ± 0.11.5 ± 0.1*1.5 ± 0.11.4 ± 0.10.47430.35870.0083
 Clamp0.8 ± 0.20.7 ± 0.20.7 ± 0.10.7 ± 0.20.79560.48450.6494
  • Measurements were made before randomization (baseline) and again after 16 weeks of CR or CON. Means ± SEM are given, and a two-way (group, time) repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare outcomes across groups. Precise P values are given for the ANOVA. When a significant interaction was found, a Sidak post hoc test was performed.

  • CHO, carbohydrate.

  • *P < 0.05;

  • **P < 0.01.