Table 1

Metabolic characteristics of the obese adolescents (n = 58)

Low VAT/VAT+SAT ratio
(n = 29)
(0.08 ± 0.02)High VAT/VAT+SAT ratio
(n = 29)
(0.15 ± 0.04)P valueAdjusted P value (age, race, sex, BMI)
Anthropometric
 Age (years)15.3 ± 3.115.1 ± 3.00.795
 Sex (female/male)22/716/130.097#
 Race (C/AA/H)6/16/715/8/60.014#
 BMI (kg/m2)37.3 ± 8.637.3 ± 6.60.991
 BMI z-score2.3 ± 0.52.3 ± 0.30.4990.236
 % Fat42.0 ± 7.039.6 ± 6.40.2600.143
Abdominal fat distribution
 Visceral fat (cm2)54.0 ± 27.690.4 ± 29.40.0000.000
 Subcutaneous fat (cm2)610.2 ± 246.8546.7 ± 197.60.2840.016
 VAT/VAT+SAT ratio0.08 ± 0.020.15 ± 0.040.0000.000
 HFF (%)2.5 ± 6.610.5 ± 12.00.0030.057
Metabolic
 Insulin sensitivity
  Matsuda index (WBISI)2.4 ± 1.7 (n = 28)1.6 ± 1.0 (n = 27)0.0500.008*
  Glucose disposal rate  (mg/kg LBM · min)10.7 ± 5.4 (n = 23)7.6 ± 3.4 (n = 21)0.0250.037*
 Adipokines and lipids
  Adiponectin (μg/mL)9.4 ± 5.16.2 ± 3.40.0100.018
  Leptin (ng/mL)35.8 ± 16.334.6 ± 17.50.8040.600
  HDL (mg/dL)47.6 ± 9.739.3 ± 8.00.0010.010
  TG (mg/dL)82.8 ± 59.9132.9 ± 88.80.0200.426
  FFA (μmol/L/L)561.7 ± 166.2616.5 ± 177.90.2670.312
  • Metabolic characteristics of the obese adolescents undergoing fat biopsy (n = 58), with values reported as the mean ± SD. AA, African Americans; C, Caucasians; FFA, free fatty acid; H, Hispanics; HFF, hepatic fat fraction; LBM, lean body mass; TG, triglycerides; WBISI, whole-body insulin sensitivity index.

  • 2 test, ANCOVA adjusted for age, sex, race, and BMI.

  • *Values are log transformed. Values in bold are P < 0.05.