Table 2

Body weight gain during the experiment, cumulative food intake, and fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and betaine levels

LFHFHF-B
Body weight gain (g)9.9 ± 0.6a18.3 ± 0.8b16.6 ± 0.7b
Food intake (kcal/mouse)ND1,106 ± 171,100 ± 57
Glucose (mg/dL)74 ± 3a114 ± 5b102 ± 4.4b
Insulin (µU/mL)10.5 ± 2.6a33.6 ± 2.9b21.9 ± 1.9c
Betaine (μmol/L)13.4 ± 1.6a5.3 ± 0.8a35.0 ± 5.2b
  • Data are mean ± SEM from n = 20 for HF and HF-B and n = 15 for LF from two independent cohorts (n = 10 per group for betaine levels).

  • Different letters indicate statistically significant differences between groups, as assessed by one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference test (P < 0.05). ND, nondetermined.