TABLE 1

Features of inflammation in diabetic retinopathy

Increased blood flow and vascular permeability
Tissue (macular) edema
Accelerated cell death (45,100)
Macrophage infiltration (70), microglial cell activation (11,53,54)
Increased leucocyte adhesion (31)
Increased cytokine expression (VEGF, IGF-1, IL-1β, others) (71,137)
Complement activation, FAS ligand upregulation (67,69)
Acute phase response protein expression (68)
Neovascularization
Glial cell proliferation
  • Reference numbers are in parentheses. FAS, fatty acid synthase; IL, interleukin.