TABLE 3

Integrated incretin hormone responses (total and intact GLP-1 and total and intact GIP) to oral glucose (50 g in 400 ml H2O) and adjustable (isoglycemic) intravenous glucose infusion (20% wt/vol) in patients with chronic pancreatitis and secondary diabetes, patients with chronic pancreatitis and NGT, patients with type 2 diabetes, and healthy subjects

Integrated incretin hormone responsesPatients with chronic pancreatitis and diabetesPatients with chronic pancreatitis and NGTPatients with type 2 diabetesHealthy subjects
n (F/M)8/68/68/68/6
Total GLP-1 (nmol/l × 4 h)
        Oral3.3 ± 0.42.6 ± 0.61.1 ± 0.51.0 ± 0.3
        Intravenous0.5 ± 0.4−0.1 ± 1.0−0.5 ± 0.10.1 ± 0.1
        Oral-intravenous3.0 ± 0.8*2.7 ± 1.2*1.6 ± 0.4*0.9 ± 0.3*
Intact GLP-1 (pmol/l × 4 h)
        Oral211 ± 138161 ± 6011 ± 130138 ± 39
        Intravenous−103 ± 58−176 ± 213−167 ± 157−98 ± 28
        Oral-intravenous314 ± 144*336 ± 207177 ± 129235 ± 53*
Total GIP (nmol/l × 4 h)
        Oral10.6 ± 2.07.7 ± 2.35.4 ± 0.56.3 ± 1.1
        Intravenous−0.2 ± 0.3−1.0 ± 0.5−1.8 ± 0.7−0.8 ± 0.3
        Oral-intravenous10.8 ± 2.0*8.7 ± 2.1*7.2 ± 0.8*7.1 ± 1.0*
Intact GIP (pmol/l × 4 h)
        Oral4.0 ± 0.7§2.2 ± 0.52.2 ± 0.32.5 ± 0.5
        Intravenous0.1 ± 0.20.0 ± 0.3−0.2 ± 0.3−0.8 ± 0.5
        Oral-intravenous3.8 ± 0.7*2.2 ± 0.5*2.4 ± 0.3*3.2 ± 0.3*
  • Data are means ± SE. Significant differences between incretin responses to oral glucose and isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion within each group (P < 0.05) and significant differences in incretin responses between the four groups are indicated.

  • * P < 0.05;

  • P < 0.05 compared with patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy subjects;

  • P < 0.05 compared with patients with chronic pancreatitis and diabetes;

  • § P < 0.05 compared with patients with chronic pancreatitis and NGT, patients with type 2 diabetes, and healthy subjects.