Table 2

HR for any-CVD and for MACE per unit change in each time-dependent covariate with no other adjustments, and an indication of the type of covariate used in the analysis

Any-CVDMACE
Type*HR95% CIP valueHR95% CIP value
Demographic
 Physical
  Age (years)C1.0911.066, 1.116<0.00011.1121.074, 1.151<0.0001
  Weight men (kg)C10.987, 1.0140.9540.9840.964, 1.0040.1092
  Weight women (kg)C1.0090.995, 1.0220.19561.0080.988, 1.0280.4519
  Mean BMI (kg/m2)M1.041, 1.0810.04861.0090.952, 1.0690.758
  BMI men (kg/m2)C1.010.967, 1.0550.65570.9660.903, 1.0340.3216
  BMI women (kg/m2)C1.0240.985, 1.0640.23031.0190.962, 1.080.5147
 Behavioral
  Smoking (yes vs. no)C1.5291.076, 2.1730.01792.2471.411, 3.5790.0007
  Alcohol (% occasional or regular vs. nondrinker)C0.860.727, 1.0180.07970.7830.608, 1.0070.0568
  Exercise (% moderate or strenuous vs. sedentary)C0.9140.707, 1.1810.48980.9790.676, 1.4160.909
Traditional
 Blood pressureC
  Systolic (mmHg)C1.0271.018, 1.037<0.00011.0341.022, 1.046<0.0001
  Mean systolic (mmHg)M1.0611.043, 1.078<0.00011.0711.046, 1.096<0.0001
  Diastolic (mmHg)C1.0090.993, 1.0250.27211.010.987, 1.0340.3842
  Mean diastolic (mmHg)M1.0551.028, 1.0830.00011.0441.005, 1.0850.027
  Pulse pressure (mmHg)C1.0361.025, 1.047<0.00011.0451.03, 1.059<0.0001
  Hypertension (yes vs. no)C2.011.448, 2.79<0.00012.1981.348, 3.5860.0016
  Any hypertension (yes vs. no)A2.3081.583, 3.365<0.00012.2911.303, 4.0270.004
  Pulse rate (bpm)C1.0211.008, 1.0340.00121.0291.011, 1.0480.0016
  Mean pulse rate (bpm)M1.0571.036, 1.078<0.00011.0741.044, 1.106<0.0001
 Medications
  ACE inhibitor (yes vs. no)C1.0920.782, 1.5230.60620.9450.583, 1.5330.8191
  ARB (yes vs. no)C1.4210.878, 2.30.15231.0240.486, 2.1580.9495
  β-Blockers (yes vs. no)C1.8271.002, 3.3330.04932.7961.441, 5.4240.0024
  Calcium channel blockers (yes vs. no)C2.841.801, 4.478<0.00012.3851.216, 4.680.0115
  Lipid lowering (yes vs. no)C1.4010.991, 1.980.0561.1410.696, 1.8720.6006
 Lipids (mg/dL)
  Total cholesterolC1.011.007, 1.014<0.00011.0111.007, 1.016<0.0001
  Mean total cholesterolM1.0181.013, 1.023<0.00011.0181.011, 1.025<0.0001
  Triglycerides (log)C2.1331.674, 2.719<0.00012.5221.807, 3.518<0.0001
  Mean triglycerides (log)M2.4581.786, 3.382<0.00012.9231.87, 4.568<0.0001
  HDLcC0.9950.986, 1.0050.31910.9840.97, 0.9990.0323
  Mean HDLcM0.9890.977, 1.0010.08470.9830.965, 1.0020.0754
  LDLcC1.0111.006, 1.015<0.00011.0141.008, 1.019<0.0001
  Mean LDLcM1.0191.014, 1.025<0.00011.021.012, 1.029<0.0001
  Hyperlipidemia (yes vs. no)C1.7671.3, 2.4010.00031.6471.055, 2.5710.0282
Diabetes-related
 History
  Insulin dose (units/kg/day)C1.5951.095, 2.3250.01511.3630.694, 2.6780.3691
  Mean insulin dose (units/kg/day)M1.6740.797, 3.5160.1741.2960.433, 3.8740.6431
  Estimated glucose disposal rateC0.8190.761, 0.882<0.00010.7630.683, 0.853<0.0001
 Nephropathy
  Estimated GFR (mL/min per 1.73 m2)C0.9850.978, 0.991<0.00010.9780.971, 0.986<0.0001
   Estimated GFR <60 (yes vs. no)C2.4791.332, 4.6130.00424.3562.21, 8.586<0.0001
   Any estimated GFR <60 (yes vs. no)A2.5291.472, 4.3460.00083.9492.099, 7.429<0.0001
  AER (mg/24 h) (log)C1.2291.133, 1.334<0.00011.2831.151, 1.431<0.0001
  Sustained AER ≥30 mg/dL (yes vs. no)C1.81.278, 2.5350.00081.9161.18, 3.1090.0085
  AER ≥40 mg/dL (yes vs. no)C1.8911.346, 2.6560.00022.1711.355, 3.4780.0013
  AER ≥300 mg/dL (yes vs. no)C2.3121.434, 3.7280.00063.0281.64, 5.5930.0004
  Any AER ≥40 mg/dL (yes vs. no)A1.7681.316, 2.3740.00021.7291.127, 2.6540.0122
  Any AER ≥300 mg/dL (yes vs. no)A1.9581.287, 2.9780.00173.0721.834, 5.148<0.0001
 Hypoglycemia
  Coma/seizure (yes vs. no)C0.9720.812, 1.1630.75421.0210.835, 1.2480.8379
  Requiring assistance (yes vs. no)C1.0020.93, 1.0790.96261.0050.905, 1.1140.9319
 Glycemia
  HbA1c (%)C1.2411.129, 1.364<0.00011.2971.139, 1.4780.0001
  Mean HbA1c (%)M1.3821.231, 1.551<0.00011.5391.309, 1.808<0.0001
  • ARB, angiotensin receptor blockers.

  • *Categories C (current or most recent), M (updated mean value), and A (cumulative incidence, such as any use) correspond to time-dependent covariates assessed or measured at or most recently before each event time or right censoring time (i.e., at the most recent visit up to the particular time).