Table 3

HRs per unit change in each baseline or time-dependent covariate in separate Cox models for any-CVD and for MACE, minimally adjusted for age and updated mean HbA1c

Any-CVDMACE
Type*HR (95% CI)P valueHR (95% CI)P value
Design
 Secondary cohort (yes vs. no)B1.57 (1.17, 2.13)0.003
Demographic
 Behavioral
  Smoking status (yes vs. no)C1.89 (1.18, 3.04)0.009
 Family history
  MI (yes vs. no)B1.53 (1.14, 2.06)0.005
Traditional
 Blood pressure
  Systolic (mmHg)C1.02 (1.01, 1.03)<0.0011.02 (1.01, 1.03)<0.001
  Mean systolic (mmHg)M1.04 (1.02, 1.06)<0.0011.04 (1.02, 1.07)<0.0014
  Mean diastolic (mmHg)M1.04 (1.01, 1.07)0.004
  Pulse pressure (mmHg)C1.02 (1.01, 1.03)<0.0011.03 (1.01, 1.04)0.001
  Mean pulse rate (bpm)M1.05 (1.03, 1.07)<0.0011.07 (1.03, 1.10)<0.001
 Medications
  Calcium channel blockers (yes vs. no)C2.02 (1.28, 3.20)0.003
 Lipids (mg/dL)
  Total cholesterolC1.008 (1.004, 1.012)<0.0011.009 (1.004, 1.0139)<0.001
  Triglycerides (log)C1.98 (1.53, 2.56)<0.0012.37 (1.65, 3.40)<0.001
  LDLcC1.008 (1.004, 1.013)<0.0011.011 (1.005, 1.017)<0.001
  HDLcC0.98 (0.966, 0.995)0.007
  Mean total cholesterolM1.012 (1.006, 1.017)<0.0011.010 (1.002, 1.018)0.013
  Mean triglycerides (log)M2.23 (1.60, 3.12)<0.0012.56 (1.60, 4.11)<0.001
  Mean LDLcM1.013 (1.007, 1.020)<0.0011.013 (1.004, 1.022)0.007
  Mean HDLcM0.984 (0.971, 0.996)0.0100.976 (0.958, 0.994)0.010
Diabetes related
 History
  Duration (months)B1.005 (1.002, 1.008)<0.0011.006 (1.002, 1.01)0.006
  Mean insulin dose (units/kg/day)M3.72 (1.70, 8.14)0.001
 Nephropathy
  AER (mg/24 h) (log)C1.17 (1.06, 1.28)0.0011.21 (1.06, 1.37)0.004
  Any AER ≥40 (yes vs. no)A1.66 (1.21, 2.26)0.002
  Any AER ≥300 (yes vs. no)A2.41 (1.39, 4.18)0.002
  • Only covariates that were nominally significant at P ≤ 0.01 are shown for each model.

  • *Categories C (current or most recent), M (updated mean value), and A (cumulative incidence, such as any use) correspond to time-dependent covariates assessed or measured at or most recently prior to each event time or right censoring time (i.e., at the most recent visit up to the particular time), with B indicating baseline value.