Table 4

The final multivariable Cox models for any-CVD and for MACE as a function of fixed (baseline) and time-dependent covariates, the latter either the current value or mean from baseline as stated

HR (95% CI)*Z-test valueP value
Any-CVD model
 covariate
  Baseline age (per 5 years)1.5366 (1.3641, 1.731)7.0711<0.001
  Mean HbA1c (per 1%)1.3115 (1.1488, 1.4972)4.0133<0.001
  Mean systolic blood pressure (per 10 mmHg)1.3186 (1.1096, 1.567)3.14190.002
  Current triglycerides (log)1.5536 (1.1688, 2.065)3.03460.003
  Mean pulse rate (per 10 bpm)1.3855 (1.1051, 1.737)2.82670.005
  Baseline duration of diabetes (per 5 years)1.247 (1.0514, 1.4789)2.53640.02
  Current use of ACE inhibitor (yes vs. no)0.6732 (0.4777, 0.9486)−2.26110.03
  Baseline family history of MI (yes vs. no)1.3866 (1.0294, 1.8678)2.15070.04
  Mean LDLc (per 10 mg/dL)1.0721 (1.0037, 1.1451)2.06970.04
MACE model
 covariate
  Baseline age (per 5 years)1.7748 (1.4872, 2.1179)6.3613<0.001
  Mean HbA1c (per 1%)1.4186 (1.1785, 1.7077)3.6965<0.001
  Mean pulse rate (per 10 bpm)1.5975 (1.1576, 2.2046)2.85090.005
  Current triglycerides (log)1.7844 (1.1909, 2.6737)2.80710.005
  Mean systolic blood pressure (per 10 mmHg)1.3863 (1.0929, 1.7583)2.69310.007
 Current smoking (yes vs. no)1.8686 (1.1647, 2.9978)2.59240.01
 Baseline duration of diabetes (per 5 years)1.3334 (1.0399, 1.7098)2.26850.03
 Current use of ACE inhibitor (yes vs. no)0.5819 (0.3553, 0.9529)−2.15150.04
 Current LDLc (per 10 mg/dL)1.0692 (1.0035, 1.1392)2.06850.04
  • Covariates are listed in the order of significance as indicated by the unsigned Z-value.

  • *The HRs in the Cox proportional hazards model can be converted from HR per x-units (e.g., per 5 years of age above) to HR per y-units (e.g., per 1 year) using the equation: HR(y/x). For example, the HR for MACE per 1 year of age is (1.7748)1/5 = 1.1216. The same equation applies to the confidence limits. The Z test and P values are unchanged by a change of scale of the HRs.