Table 1

Baseline characteristics of DCCT/EDIC participants according to the presence or absence of any-CVD over the course of DCCT/EDIC

Any-CVD
OverallNoYes
N = 1,441n = 1,257n = 184HR95% CIP value
Design
 Treatment group (% conventional)5150551.290.964, 1.7250.0864
 Cohort (% secondary)5048621.5921.18, 2.1470.0023
Demographic
 Physical
  Sex (% men)5353521.0040.752, 1.3410.9786
  Age (years)27 (22,32)27 (21,32)31 (27,35)1.0911.066, 1.116<0.0001
  Adult vs. adolescent (<18 years)8685953.3781.727, 6.6110.0004
  Weight men (kg)74 (67,82)74 (67,82)76 (70,84)1.0110.993, 1.0290.2422
  Weight women (kg)62 (56,69)61 (55,68)65 (57,70)1.0341.011, 1.0570.0032
  BMI men (kg/m2)24 (22,25)23 (22,25)24 (22,26)1.0650.993, 1.1420.0764
  BMI women (kg/m2)23 (21,25)23 (21,25)24 (22,26)1.0961.022, 1.1750.0098
 Behavioral
  Smoking (%)1917271.8341.325, 2.5380.0003
  Alcohol (% occasional or regular)2222200.8880.617, 1.2790.5246
  Exercise (% moderate or strenuous)7070711.0670.775, 1.4680.6901
 Family history (%)
  Hypertension5656591.1230.838, 1.5060.4377
  MI4947601.6151.202, 2.1690.0015
  T1DM1414171.2940.884, 1.8940.1856
  T2DM99131.5921.037, 2.4460.0336
Traditional
 Blood pressure
  Systolic (mmHg)114 (106,122)114 (106,120)116 (110,124)1.0161.004, 1.0290.0117
  Diastolic (mmHg)72 (68,80)72 (68,80)74 (68,80)1.0211.004, 1.0380.0131
  Pulse pressure (mmHg)40 (34,48)40 (34,48)42 (34,48)1.0060.991, 1.020.4554
  Pulse rate (bpm)76 (68,84)76 (68,82)78 (72,88)1.0191.006, 1.0310.0029
 Lipids (mg/dL)
  Total cholesterol174 (153,197)172 (152,195)185 (162,211)1.0121.008, 1.016<0.0001
  Triglycerides73 (55,94)72 (55,93)80 (59,97)1.6141.184, 2.1990.0024
  HDLc49 (42,57)50 (42,58)47 (41,55)0.9920.98, 1.0040.2001
  LDLc107 (91,127)105 (89,125)119 (98,144)1.0141.01, 1.019<0.0001
Diabetes-related
 History
  Diabetes duration (months)49 (26,108)47 (26,104)69 (29,130)1.0041.001, 1.0070.0032
  C-peptide (nmol/L)*
   Diabetes duration <5 years0.13 (0.04,0.25)0.12 (0.04,0.24)0.13 (0.03,0.29)1.55710.325, 7.4580.5796
   Diabetes duration ≥5 years0.03 (0.03,0.04)0.03 (0.03,0.04)0.03 (0.03,0.03)0.0790, 33.7080.4115
 Nephropathy
  AER (mg/24 h)24 (20,29)23 (20,28)24 (20,30)1.170.978, 1.4010.0861
 Glycemia
  HbA1c (%) 8.8 (7.8,10.1)8.8 (7.8,10.1)9.0 (8.1,10.3)
  HbA1c (mmol/mol)73 (62,87)73 (62,87)75 (65,89)1.0931.003, 1.190.0426
  • Data are presented as median (first quartile,third quartile) or prevalence (%) and as the corresponding HR for any-CVD per unit change in the baseline covariate. An identical table for MACE is presented in the Supplementary Data. T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  • *C-peptide is presented separately within diabetes duration strata because the eligibility range differed among those with ≤5 years’ duration (0–0.5 nmol/L) and those with >5 years’ duration (0–0.2 nmol/L).