Table 4

Percent change in metabolites from baseline by DPP treatment group

LifestyleMetforminPlaceboP (lifestyle vs. placebo)P (metformin vs. placebo)
Changes in established amino acid markers of diabetes
 Isoleucine12.120.99.40.700.27
 Leucine9.915.07.20.610.34
 Valine7.99.94.80.620.47
 Phenylalanine8.911.610.20.840.87
 Tyrosine9.812.011.50.830.96
 Glutamine/glutamate49.991.871.70.490.64
Changes in additional metabolites
 Betaineǂ12.87.95.40.010.43
 Allantoin21.28.24.40.030.49
 1-Methylhistamine20.311.726.20.340.01
 Hexacosanoyl carnitine4.57.720.30.020.12
  • Data are percent change at 2 years of intervention from baseline in the DPP for each treatment group. Metabolite changes for established amino acid markers of diabetes and metabolite changes for any comparison at P < 0.05 are presented.

  • ǂComparison of lifestyle vs. metformin change for betaine is significant at P = 0.04.