Table 2

Circulating substrates

T2DND
BaselineAcuteChronicBaselineAcuteChronic*
Fasting β-hydroxybutyrate (μmol/L)#246 ± 288220 ± 150561 ± 596145 ± 138§173 ± 109267 ± 207§
Meal β-hydroxybutyratemean (μmol/L)133 ± 96172 ± 94330 ± 38277 ± 43§109 ± 65§151 ± 93§
Fasting lactate (mmol/L)#1.42 ± 0.421.30 ± 0.391.20 ± 0.401.07 ± 0.32§1.06 ± 0.43§1.11 ± 0.58
Meal lactatemean (mmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ 5h)1.55 ± 0.491.50 ± 0.541.32 ± 0.461.06 ± 0.23§0.96 ± 0.31§1.07 ± 0.33§
Fasting glycerol (μmol/L)#112 ± 31103 ± 36115 ± 39116 ± 76118 ± 89108 ± 29
Meal glycerolmean (μmol/L)80 ± 2083 ± 2086 ± 2377 ± 2485 ± 2693 ± 36
Fasting FFA (µEq/L)#605 ± 172520 ± 145652 ± 182535 ± 181496 ± 217611 ± 143
Meal FFAmean (µEq/L)225 ± 76287 ± 97315 ± 110194 ± 70234 ± 80§271 ± 89
Fasting glycerol Ra (μmol ⋅ kg-1 ⋅ min−1)2.9 ± 1.23.0 ± 1.13.1 ± 1.22.7 ± 0.63.2 ± 1.43.5 ± 0.8
Meal glycerol Ramean (μmol ⋅ kg-1 ⋅ min−1)1.9 ± 0.61.9 ± 0.62.0 ± 0.62.1 ± 0.62.2 ± 0.7§2.5 ± 1.0§
  • Data are median (interquartile range). Mean is the average value during the 5-h postmeal period. ND, subjects without diabetes.

  • *IGT only (n = 13).

  • #Before drug administration.

  • P ≤ 0.05 vs. respective baseline by Wilcoxon signed rank test.

  • §P ≤ 0.05 vs. T2D by Mann-Whitney U test.