TABLE 1

Within-subject changes in children increasing to Tanner stage III or IV versus those remaining at Tanner stage I

Children remaining at Tanner stage I (n = 29)
Children progressing from Tanner stage I to III or IV (n = 31)
Within subject effectsBetween subject effects
Initial visitFollow-up visitInitial visitFollow-up visit
Age (years)
 Caucasian8.6 ± 1.210.2 ± 1.3*10.2 ± 0.912.4 ± 1.2*None
 African-American8.0 ± 0.89.5 ± 0.6*9.8 ± 1.212.2 ± 1.1*
Fat-free mass (kg)
 Caucasian22.7 ± 5.026.1 ± 5.5*26.7 ± 5.935.4 ± 8.0*TimeSex
 African-American21.9 ± 3.624.9 ± 3.7*27.9 ± 3.939.1 ± 6.3*
Fat mass (kg)
 Caucasian8.2 ± 6.511.0 ± 7.9*15.0 ± 9.821.5 ± 14.1*TimeNone
 African-American5.8 ± 7.67.6 ± 3.4*12.9 ± 8.018.7 ± 12.9*
Fasting glucose (mg/dl)
 Caucasian92.7 ± 4.897.1 ± 4.2*94.8 ± 6.495.6 ± 5.4NoneSex
 African-American94.0 ± 5.296.8 ± 4.292.2 ± 5.696.2 ± 4.5*
Fasting insulin (μIU/ml)
 Caucasian10.3 ± 3.911.4 ± 5.114.7 ± 8.018.8 ± 8.7*NoneNone
 African-American11.2 ± 5.010.9 ± 2.213.9 ± 8.318.5 ± 12.6*
SI [×10−4 min−1/(μIU/ml)]
 Caucasian7.4 ± 3.27.9 ± 3.95.0 ± 3.73.4 ± 1.6Time*groupRace
 African-American4.4 ± 1.46.4 ± 2.4*4.0 ± 2.42.6 ± 1.7*Time*group
AIR (μIU/ml)
 Caucasian652 ± 365650 ± 540823 ± 435781 ± 449NoneRace
 African-American1,715 ± 1,7821,239 ± 1,0242,071 ± 1,7142,899 ± 3,718
DI (×10−4 min−1)
 Caucasian4,123 ± 1,5083,972 ± 1,8563,025 ± 2,2242,224 ± 973Time*groupRace
 African-American6,174 ± 4,3947,284 ± 4,7176,905 ± 4,3045,009 ± 2,937
  • Data are means ± SD

  • *

    * Significantly different at follow-up compared with initial visit by paired t test. Within-subject effects were from repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) after adjusting for age, sex, ethnic group, and initial fat mass. Between-subject effects of race or sex were from repeated-measures ANOVA model. Time effects are the effects of time; significant time*group interaction indicates that change over time was significantly different in those children remaining at Tanner stage I versus those progressing to Tanner stage III or IV.