TABLE 1

Characteristics of the participants in hyperglycemic clamp experiments with GIP infusion

ParameterHealthy control subjectsFirst-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patientsType 2 diabetic patientsSignificance (P value)*
Sex (female/male)4/615/63/70.059
Age (years)49 ± 1749 ± 1252 ± 90.83
BMI (kg/m2)25.7 ± 3.626.0 ± 4.228.6 ± 5.10.23
Waist-to-hip ratio (cm/cm)0.89 ± 0.10.84 ± 0.1§0.93 ± 0.070.028
Participants with first-degree relatives (type 2 diabetes)0/10§21/21§4/10<0.0001
 Father82
 Mother152
 Siblings33
HbA1c (%)5.0 ± 0.5§5.1 ± 0.3§6.2 ± 0.7<0.0001
Oral glucose tolerance
 Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl)94 ± 7§88 ± 8§117 ± 15<0.0001
 120-min plasma glucose (mg/dl)101 ± 16112 ± 15NE0.81
Blood pressure
 Systolic (mmHg)128 ± 9130 ± 18131 ± 140.93
 Diastolic (mmHg)81 ± 480 ± 977 ± 50.36
Triglycerides (mg/dl)113 ± 65117 ± 75189 ± 1070.06
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)60 ± 2671 ± 24§43 ± 190.013
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)140 ± 30120 ± 35146 ± 250.70
Creatinine (mg/dl)1.1 ± 0.1§1.0 ± 0.1§1.0 ± 0.10.017
  • Data are n and means ± SE. NE, not examined.

  • *

    * ANOVA or χ2 tests;

  • normal range, 4.0–6.2%;

  • significant difference (P < 0.05) versus healthy control subjects (Duncan’s post hoc test);

  • §

    § significant difference (P < 0.05) versus patients with type 2 diabetes (Duncan’s post hoc test).