Parameter [reference] | Healthy control subjects | First-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients | Type 2 diabetic patients | Significance (P value, ANOVA) | Reference |
---|---|---|---|---|---|
B-cell function | |||||
HOMA B-cell function index (% of normal) | 67 ± 7 | 49 ± 5 | 63 ± 15 | 0.27 | 42 |
Insulin/glucose [basal] ([mU/l]/[mg/dl]) | 0.06 ± 0.01 | 0.05 ± 0.0 | 0.09 ± 0.01 | 0.19 | 55 |
Insulin/glucose [hyperglycemia‡] ([mU/l]/[mg/dl]) | 0.09 ± 0.01 | 0.07 ± 0.01 | 0.10 ± 0.02 | 0.34 | no reference |
Insulin sensitivity | |||||
HOMA insulin resistance index (fold normal) | 1.31 ± 0.95* | 1.03 ± 0.12* | 3.56 ± 1.01† | 0.0002 | 42 |
Glucose infusion/insulin ([mg · kg^{−1} · min^{−1}]/ [mU/l])§ | 0.43 ± 0.09 | 0.46 ± 0.05 | 0.25 ± 0.13 | 0.19 | no reference |
Fasting Belfiore index ([l/mU] · [dl/mg]) | 0.078 ± 0.008 | 0.107 ± 0.012* | 0.045 ± 0.014† | 0.0006 | 56 |
FIRI ([l/mU] · [dl/mg]) | 1.11 ± 0.2* | 0.88 ± 0.1* | 3.55 ± 0.98† | 0.0003 | 57 |
Data are means ± SE. P values were calculated by ANOVA with Duncan’s post hoc test to describe differences among the three groups of patients.
* Significant difference (P < 0.05) versus type 2 diabetic patients;
† significant difference (P < 0.05) versus healthy control subjects;
‡ hyperglycemia refers to the time point 30 min (see Fig. 1), i.e., before start of the GIP infusion;
§ glucose infusion was calculated for the period 15–30 min (see Fig. 1) and related to the mean insulin concentrations at 15 and 30 min.