TABLE 1

Characteristics of the study subjects

CharacteristicType 2 diabetic subjectsNormal control subjects
n2,2011,212
M/F995/1,206517/695
Age (years)60.9 ± 11.7 (2,201)71.3 ± 8.0 (1,212)
Age at onset of diabetes (years)47.1 ± 12.2 (2,081)
BMI (kg/m2)23.2 ± 3.6 (2,144)22.4 ± 3.3 (1,126)
Maximum BMI (kg/m2)26.8 ± 4.2 (1,425)
Waist-to-hip ratio0.89 ± 0.08 (241)
HbA1c (%)7.8 ± 1.8 (2,114)5.0 ± 0.3 (1,029)
FPG (mg/dl)157 ± 57 (1,598)94 ± 11 (989)
f-IRI (μU/ml)6.78 ± 4.73 (577)
HOMA-R (mol · μU · l−2)2.54 ± 1.97 (577)
HOMA-β (%)36.2 ± 34.1 (577)
Serum total cholesterol (mg/dl)203 ± 40 (1,586)
Serum triglycerides (mg/dl)142 ± 133 (1,444)
Hypertension prevalence45.5 (1,829)
Retinopathy prevalence43.3 (1,626)
Nephropathy prevalence37.3 (1,632)
Neuropathy prevalence40.7 (1,546)
Treatment for diabetes2,176
 Diet  475
 Oral hypoglycemic  agents  985
 Insulin  716
  • Data are n, means ± SD (n), or % (n). Criteria for diagnosis of hypertension and diabetic complications are described in research design and methods.