TABLE 2

Substrates and hormones

Type 2 diabetic subjects
Control subjects
16 h20 h24 h16 h20 h24 h
Ketone bodies
(β-hydroxybutyrate + acetoacetate)  (μmol/l)
 Fasting348 ± 73*411 ± 82499 ± 101140 ± 23300 ± 40§623 ± 139
 Fasting and NA210 ± 35126 ± 36#875 ± 131328 ± 94161 ± 11**1,281 ± 353
Precursors (μmol/l)
 Fasting2,269 ± 1692,065 ± 1422,052 ± 1031,832 ± 1141,804 ± 1221,847 ± 84
 Fasting and NA2,112 ± 2482,235 ± 2412,344 ± 1681,830 ± 931,797 ± 1001,829 ± 96
Glucagon (pg/ml)
 Fasting68 ± 566 ± 772 ± 860 ± 866 ± 763 ± 9
 Fasting and NA76 ± 1070 ± 990 ± 957 ± 558 ± 472 ± 8
Epinephrine (pg/ml)
 Fasting18 ± 523 ± 422 ± 317 ± 320 ± 425 ± 4
 Fasting and NA24 ± 437 ± 830 ± 428 ± 534 ± 877 ± 42
Cortisol (nmol/l)
 Fasting320 ± 26††275 ± 23316 ± 58225 ± 31168 ± 16131 ± 23
 Fasting and NA362 ± 54369 ± 54470 ± 165203 ± 33260 ± 55304 ± 138
  • Data are means ± SE.

  • *

    * P < 0.03 vs. control subjects

  • P < 0.01 vs. fasting and NA

  • P < 0.01 vs 24 h

  • §

    § P < 0.02 vs. fasting and NA

  • P < 0.03 vs. 20 h

  • P < 0.05 vs. 24 h

  • #

    # P < 0.001 vs. 24 h

  • **

    ** P < 0.02 vs. 24 h

  • ††

    †† P < 0.03 s. control subjects.