TABLE 1

Modifications in β-cell gene expression after cytokine exposure

Cluster/GANGene nameIL-1β + IFN-γ
IL-1β
6 h
24 h
24 h
H1H2H1H2H1H2
1.0 Metabolism
 1.1 Carbohydrates
  X59737*Creatine kinase-ubiquitous>+3.0>+10.0>+3.0>+3.0>+3.0>+3.0
  S68135*GLUT1+3.6+3.8+3.5+4.3
  L28135GLUT2–4.5–3.7
  X53588Glucokinase–4.9–4.2–4.7–3.5
  U07181*Lactate dehydrogenase-B–4.3–5.9
 1.2 Arginine metabolism and NO formation
  U03699*iNOS>+10.0>+10.0>+10.0>+10.0>+3.0>+3.0
  X12459Argininosuccinate synthetase>+3.0>+10.0>+10.0>+10.0>+3.0>+10.0
  J04792*Ornithine decarboxilase+3.5+2.4+5.4+5.6
  J02720Arginase–2.5–2.5–2.1–5.0–5.3–2.7
 1.3 Amino acids (other than arginine)
  M72422GAD65–6.4–3.3–5.8–4.1–5.3–2.3
  U91561Pyridoxine 5′-phosphate oxidase<–3.0<–3.0–3.0–2.2–3.1–2.4
  M96601Taurine transporter–3.1–6.3
  Z15123S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase<3.0–3.3–2.0–3.9
  E03229L-cysteine oxygen oxidoreductase<–3.0<–3.0–2.5<–3.0
  M97662β-alanine synthase–3.4–2.9–6.0–4.7
  M84648L-amino acid decarboxilase<–3.0<–10.0<–3.0<–10.0
 1.4 Lipids
  S69874c-FABP+8.9+9.5+10.8+9.8
  D17309Δ-4-3-ketosteroid 5-β reductase+4.6+5.2+3.3+4.8
  AF048687Lactosylceramide synthase–3.6–3.3
  J05035Steroid 5 α-reductase<–3.0–2.4<–3.0<–3.0
  L27075ATP-cytrate lyase–2.2–2.3–3.8–4.3
  S70011Trycarboxilate carrier-mithocondrial–4.8–2.8–2.3–2.8
  U4475015-PGDH–2.7–3.5<–3.0<–3.0<–3.0<–3.0
  M73714Microsomal aldehyde dehydrogenase<–3.0<–10.0<–3.0<–3.0
  J05470Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II<–10.0–2.4<–10.0–6.4<–3.0–2.3
  D00569*2,4-dyenoyl-CoA reductase–4.3–5.4<–3.0<–10.0<–3.0–2.3
 1.5 ATP production and processing
  U78977*ATPase (putative)–4.5–3.9–3.7–3.1
  D00636*Cytochrome b-5 reductase (NADH)<–10.0<–3.0<–10.0<–10.0<–3.0<–10.0
 1.6 Miscellaneous
  J05519C1-tetrahydrofolate synthase+4.1+7.3>+3.0>+3.0
  D87839GABA transaminase–4.1–3.1
  M83143*β-galactoside α-2,6-sialyltransferase–3.0–3.7–8.4–6.8<–3.0–2.7
2.0 Protein synthesis, modification, and secretion
 AJ000485CLIP 115>+3.0>+3.0>+3.0>+3.0
 X0072232S pre-rRNA+2.9+2.7>+3.0>+3.0
 J03627S-100–related protein+4.1+3.6+2.9+3.8
 X77235ARL 4+3.0+4.5>+3.0+2.9
 M24105VAMP2–2.7–2.6–3.1–2.4
 X06889Rab 3A<–3.0<–3.0<–3.0–2.6
 M83745Prohormone convertase-1–3.8–3.2
 X53565TGN 38–2.3–3.3<–3.0–2.6<–3.0–7.2
 M75148Kinesin light chain-C<–3.0<–3.0
 U72995Rab 3 GDP/GTP exchange protein<–3.0<–10.0<–3.0<–3.0
 M96630Sec 61 homolog<–3.0–2.6–2.8<–10.0<–3.0<–3.0
3.0 Ionic channels and ion transporters
 X96394Multidrug resistance protein>+3.0+2.5+3.4+3.9
 AF008439Nramp2+4.6+4.1+2.9+2.5+4.4+7.8
 M58040Transferrin receptor>+3.0>+3.0
 AF004017Eletrogenic NA + bicarbonate cotransporter>+3.0>+3.0
 AF048828*RVDAC 1–3.4–3.2
 U08290Neuronatin α–2.4–2.5–3.9–3.4
 U50842Nedd4 ubiquitin ligase–3.8–3.7–2.7–1.9
 J04024*Ca2+ ATPase type 2<–3.0<–3.0–2.3<–3.0
4.0 Hormones and growth factors
 M11596Calcitonin-related peptide, β+7.3+9.7+9.6+11.0+5.4+6.1
 X63574Somatostatin receptor type 3>+3.0>+10.0>+3.0+3.4>+3.0+4.1
 M25804*Rev-ErbA-α+2.6+3.7+3.5+3.7
 D15069Adrenomedullin precursor+3.8+3.7+2.8+3.2
 M96674Glucagon receptor>+3.0>+3.0+3.2+2.1+4.9+3.3
 Z83757GH receptor<–3.0–7.5–2.3<–3.0
 AA818097Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor–3.2–4.2–3.4–2.0
 M25584Insulin 1–3.0–4.3–3.1–2.1
 M93273Somatostatin receptor type 2<–3.0<–10.0–4.2–4.5–4.3–6.7
 L19660Gastric inhibitory peptide receptor–4.7–5.1–4.1–3.7
 M74152*Prolactin receptor–5.5–4.7–3.7–2.7
 M36317*Thyrotropin releasing hormone–5.3–5.3–3.7–3.7
 D50608*Cholecystokinin-A receptor<–10.0–8.5<–10.0<–10.0<–10.0–21.0
5.0 Cytokines, chemokines, and related receptors
 D11445CINC-1>+10.0>+10.0>+10.0>+10.0>+10.0>+10.0
 U17035Mob-1>+10.0>+10.0>+10.0>+10.0>+3.0>+3.0
 X17053*MCP-1>+10.0>+10.0>+10.0>+10.0>+3.0>+3.0
 AF053312MIP-3α>+10.0>+10.0>+3.0>+10.0>+3.0>+10.0
 AF030358*Fractalkine>+10.0>+10.0
 U94330Osteoprotegerin>+10.0>+10.0
 AJ011969MIC-1>+3.0>+3.0
 U45965CINC-3>+10.0>+10.0>+3.0>+3.0
 U69272*IL-15>+10.0>+10.0>+3.0>+3.0
 M26744IL-6>+3.0>+3.0>+3.0>+3.0
6.0 Cytokine processing and signal transduction
 M80367Guanylate nucleotide binding protein 2>+10.0>+10.0>+10.0>+10.0
 AJ000557*JAK-2>+3.0>+10.0
 AF086624Pim-3 serine threonine kinase>+10.0>+3.0>+3.0>+10.0
 D89863M-Ras>+3.0+15.2>+3.0+7.4
 S81478*3CH134/CL100 tyrosine phosphatase>+3.0+3.5>+3.0>+3.0
 M64301*ERK3+3.3+4.3+3.2+1.7+2.4+2.4
 M64780*Agrin+5.1+6.2+3.3+2.9
 AA957896MAPK kinase 2–3.3–3.4–3.1–2.5
 X85183Ras-related GTPase (rag A)–3.8–3.4–2.4–2.5
 X74227IP3 3-kinase<–3.0<–3.0
 J05592*Phosphatase inhibitor-1–4.2–2.9–3.6–4.8–3.1–2.4
 U22830P2Y purinoreceptor–4.4–5.0<–3.0<–3.0
 M85214Tyrosine kinase receptor–6.8–5.1–4.8–3.7
 M62372α-2-adrenergic receptor (RG 20)<–3.0<–10.0<–3.0<–3.0<–3.0<–3.0
 M23601Monoamine oxidase B–7.3–9.0–5.6–4.1
 AF013144MAPK phosphatase (cpg21)–3.3–3.7–9.8–10.8–3.1–4.5
7.0 MHC and related genes
 X57523*Mtp1>+10.0>+10.0>+10.0>+10.0>+3.0>+10.0
 D10729Proteasome subunit RC1>+3.0>+10.0>+10.0>+10.0>+3.0>+10.0
 X14254MHC-II–assoc. invariant chain γ>+3.0>+10.0>+10.0>+10.0
 X67504MHC-I molecules>+10.0>+10.0
 M64795MHC-I RT1-u haplotype>+3.0>+10.0>+10.0+7.9
 AF029240*MHC-1b RT1.S3>+10.0>+10.0+9.6+16.8
 D10757*Proteasome subunit RING 12>+10.0>+10.0>+3.0>+10.0
 M31038MHC-I non-RT1.α chain+6.9+4.9+8.4+8.5
 U16025*MHC-Ib RT1>+3.0>+10.0>+3.0>+3.0
 M10094MHC-I truncated cell surface antigen+3.6+6.7>+3.0+3.8
 D30804*Proteasome subunit RC6-1+4.2+4.9
 X63854Mtp2+8.0+12.8+3.2+4.9
 M15562*MHC-II RT1.u-D-α chain+4.4+3.1
 D45250*Proteasome activator rPA28-β+5.8+3.8+3.3+4.1
8.0 Cell adhesion, cytoskeleton, and related genes
 X81449*Keratin 19>+10.0>+10.0+7.7+7.0+7.3+7.7
 U05675Fibrinogen β+4.9+5.7+4.5+6.9+6.9+9.0
 D00913ICAM-1>+10.0>+10.0>+3.0>+3.0>+3.0>+3.0
 AF017437*CD 47 antigen+3.4+3.2+3.8+4.0+2.6+2.4
 M23697Tissue-type plasminogen activator+3.23.7+6.6+5.7
 U49062*Antigen CD-24–3.5–3.2–4.2–3.3
 X05834*Fibronectin–7.0–3.9–5.2–4.7
 AA875659*Internexin-α–2.7<–3.0<–3.0<–10.0
 D83348Long-type PB-cadherin<–3.0<–10.0<–3.0–3.5
9.0 Transcription factors and related genes
 X63594*I-κB α-chain>+10.0>+10.0>+10.0>+10.0>+10.0>+10.0
 AF001417Zinc finger protein 9>+10.0>+10.0>+10.0>+10.0>+3.0>+10.0
 Y00396*c-myc+6.2+4.1+7.4+5.0
 X17163c-jun>+3.0>+10.0>+3.0>+10.0
 M34253*IRF-1+8.3+12.4+9.4+12.4+2.2+2.2
 S71523Lim-1>+3.0>+10.0
 J03179*D-binding protein+5.0+3.0+6.5+4.5
 L26267NF-κB–p105+6.1+8.8+8.3+4.4+5.0+4.9
 AF031657Zinc finger protein 94>+3.0>+3.0
 X62323Pan-1>+3.0>+3.0
 M65149*C/EBPδ+2.6+3.0+3.5+3.7+4.2+4.1
 S77528*C/EBPβ+2.5+2.0+3.0+3.4+2.7+3.6
 S66024*CREM transcriptional repressor–2.6–3.1–5.1–2.9–6.5–6.2
 U08214URE-B1 DNA binding protein–3.8–5.5
 U04835CREM δ C-G<–3.0–2.2<–3.0–2.9<–3.0–2.5
 AA900476*MRG 1–3.5–3.5–2.6–3.0–3.4–2.3
 S69329*Isl-1–2.5–2.3–6.3–3.5–3.0–2.6
 U67080Zinc finger protein MyT13–5.0–11.5–3.4–4.5
10.0 RNA synthesis and splicing factors
 AF063447RNA helicase>+3.0+3.6>+3.0+4.4
 AF044910Survival motor neuron>+3.0>+3.0
 AF036335*NonO/p54nrb–3.3–3.3
11.0 Cell cycle
 U75404*SSeCKs 322+7.6+6.6
 D14014Cyclin D1–3.5–2.7–3.1–2.1–3.3–2.2
 D16308Cyclin D2–3.1–3.7–2.7–1.8
 AA874802Histone H1 subtype O–3.1–4.7–5.4–5.8
 D16309*Cyclin D3<–3.0–2.9<–3.0<–3.0<–3.0–2.9
12.0 Defense/repair
 M85389*Hsp 27>+10.0>+10.0
 AA859648Hsp 40-mouse homolog+7.6+6.0+2.7+2.5
 Z27118*Hsp 70-gene 1/2+7.1+5.3
 U30186GADD-153+3.6+4.3+4.9+6.6
 AA875620*Hsp 70-gene 3+3.7+3.3+4.6+4.1
 M76704MGMT>+3.0+2.5>+3.0+2.9
 M11794Metallothionein+2.0+4.8+2.1+3.3
 U77829Gas-5 growth arrest homolog+3.7+3.1+2.1+3.3
 Y00497MnSOD+3.1+3.8+2.4+4.1+2.4+3.9
 X52711MX1>+3.0>+3.0>+3.0>+3.0
 D00680Glutathione peroxidase<–3.0<–3.0<–3.0<–3.0
 D42148Gas-6 growth arrest specific<–3.0<–3.0<–3.0<–10.0–2.9<–3.0
13.0 Apoptosis
 E13573Death protein-5>+3.0>+10.0>+3.0>+3.0
14.0 Miscellaneous
 Y0704*Best-5>+10.0>+10.0>+10.0>+10.0
 J02962IgE binding protein+3.5+2.8+8.7+11.0+9.6+10.2
 M29866*Complement component-3>+3.0>+10.0>+3.0>+10.0>+3.0>+10.0
 D88250Complement C1 homologue>+3.0>+10.0>+3.0>+10.0
 AA875037Serine protease inhibitor-15>+3.0>+3.0
 S45663Sinaptic glicoprotein-2+4.7+4.2+4.0+4.1
 S75019*Antiquitin–3.2–3.3–2.6–2.3
 U10071CART–5.1–4.2–3.4–3.8
 D10666Neural visinin-like protein 1–2.1–5.4–4.7–5.5–4.7–4.7
 AF080468*Glycogen storage disease-1b protein–3.8–3.2–5.6–5.2–3.7–2.8
 U64030Deoxyuridine triphosphatase<–3.0–4.6<–3.0–5.8–2.3–2.8
  •  Data are fold-variation for the gene with the indicated access number. In some cases, the fold-change was arbitrarily estimated by the software due to undetectable expression in one of the groups being studied (see research design and methods). In these cases, when the allocated fold-variation was between 3 and 10, it is indicated as >+3.0 or <–3.0. If the allocated variation was >10, we indicated it as >+10 or <–10. The genes are ordered taking into account the fold-variation in gene expression of the cells exposed for 24 h to IL-1β + INFγ. The data are from individual duplicate hybridizations (H)-1 and H2.

  • *

    * Different expression of a gene detected by more than one group of probes. +, increased; –, decreased compared with respective controls (β-cells not exposed to cytokines; 6 or 24 h). ARL4, ADP-ribosylation–like 4; CART, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript; c-FABP, cutaneous fatty acid binding protein; CREM, cAMP-responsive element modulator; GAN, GenBank accession number; RvDAL, voltage-dependent anion channel; TGN, Trans-Golgi network integral membrane protein.