TABLE 1

Characteristics of the subjects

Control 50ObeseType 2 diabetesControl 25Type 1 diabetes
99989
Men/women3/63/66/31/74/5
Age (years)51 ± 243 ± 454 ± 3*25 ± 133 ± 3
BMI (kg/m2)23 ± 135 ± 130 ± 1*22 ± 124 ± 1
Basal
 Glucose (mmol/l)5.0 ± 0.25.0 ± 0.210.5 ± 0.6*4.4 ± 0.112.6 ± 0.8
 Insulin (pmol/l)37 ± 499 ± 1766 ± 1036 ± 4
 Nonesterified fatty acid (μmol/l)399 ± 48629 ± 49621 ± 67492 ± 48519 ± 97
 Triglycerides (mmol/l)0.7 ± 0.11.2 ± 0.11.4 ± 0.10.6 ± 0.10.4 ± 0.02
 Glucose disposal rate (mg · kg−1 · min−1)2.2 ± 0.11.6 ± 0.12.4 ± 0.2*ndnd
 Glucose oxidation rate (mg · kg−1 · min−1)1.2 ± 0.20.9 ± 0.11.0 ± 0.11.0 ± 0.21.5 ± 0.2
Clamp study
 Glucose (mmol/l)4.3 ± 0.24.5 ± 0.14.9 ± 0.14.5 ± 0.15.6 ± 0.2
 Insulin (pmol/l)919 ± 821376 ± 1681179 ± 65875 ± 48949 ± 115
 Glucose disposal rate (mg · kg−1 · min−1)9.6 ± 0.94.5 ± 0.54.3 ± 0.610.4 ± 0.68.6 ± 0.8
 Glucose oxidation rate (mg · kg−1 · min−1)3.2 ± 0.22.1 ± 0.11.9 ± 0.13.5 ± 0.23.4 ± 0.2
 Nonoxidative glucose disposal rate (mg · kg−1 · min−1)6.3 ± 0.82.4 ± 0.42.5 ± 0.66.9 ± 0.75.3 ± 0.8
  • P < 0.05 and

  • P < 0.01 vs. the respective control subjects;

  • *

    * P < 0.05 between type 2 diabetic and obese subjects; nd, not determined.