TABLE 2

Relative effects of insulin infusion on the expression of the target genes in skeletal muscle

Control 50ObeseType 2 diabetesControl 25Type 1 diabetes
Insulin receptor36 ± 20−8 ± 1212 ± 2020 ± 1232 ± 18
IRS-1−47 ± 6*−31 ± 6*−27 ± 9*−34 ± 4*−31 ± 9*
p85αPI3K99 ± 20*78 ± 18*−1 ± 12128 ± 46*67 ± 20*
p110αPI3K−19 ± 2018 ± 18−48 ± 9*−7 ± 15−5 ± 15
p110βPI3K−23 ± 1231 ± 17−42 ± 9*12 ± 1947 ± 32
GLUT445 ± 10*21 ± 917 ± 2348 ± 10*66 ± 31*
Hexokinase II93 ± 20*127 ± 35*9 ± 18194 ± 37*88 ± 16*
Rad223 ± 68*112 ± 34*60 ± 22*190 ± 37*339 ± 88*
Glycogen synthase32 ± 29−2 ± 2119 ± 1315 ± 956 ± 45
  • The results are presented as percentage changes of specific mRNA levels between the values measured at end of the 3-h hyperinsulinemic clamp and the basal values.

  • *

    * Significant change (P < 0.05 with Wicoxon’s nonparametric test for paired values) when comparing the values before and after insulin infusion.

  • Significant difference in the effect of insulin in a group of patients when compared with the age-matched control group.