TABLE 2

Arterial blood alanine, serine, glycine, threonine, glutamate, and glutamine levels (μmol/l) in 18-h–fasted conscious dogs during the basal (−40 to 0 min) and experimental (0–300 min) periods in groups in which plasma insulin levels were kept constant, decreased, or increased

Basal periodExperimental period (min)
3060120180240300
Blood alanine level (μmol/l)
 Control309 ± 27266 ± 40257 ± 36232 ± 32246 ± 28258 ± 31285 ± 37
 HypoINS279 ± 23242 ± 29227 ± 27219 ± 25212 ± 26233 ± 37247 ± 35
 HyperINS281 ± 9211 ± 14187 ± 17*153 ± 13*†140 ± 16*†136 ± 24*†140 ± 26*†
Blood serine level (μmol/l)
 Control155 ± 7147 ± 6139 ± 7134 ± 9*130 ± 10*124 ± 10*128 ± 11*
 HypoINS145 ± 6130 ± 5128 ± 6119 ± 9*120 ± 9*129 ± 9129 ± 10
 HyperINS172 ± 6144 ± 9*121 ± 14*125 ± 8*107 ± 8*96 ± 7*†92 ± 8*†
Blood glycine level (μmol/l)
 Control273 ± 17258 ± 26243 ± 27240 ± 30228 ± 26221 ± 31239 ± 35
 HypoINS235 ± 17203 ± 15196 ± 12184 ± 12*178 ± 14*192 ± 20*194 ± 21*
 HyperINS302 ± 27266 ± 36234 ± 32212 ± 29*182 ± 23*166 ± 18*162 ± 21*†
Blood threonine level (μmol/l)
 Control225 ± 9218 ± 16211 ± 17214 ± 19215 ± 12210 ± 18216 ± 29
 HypoINS286 ± 17284 ± 28289 ± 30283 ± 32290 ± 35†298 ± 28†299 ± 29
 HyperINS335 ± 30†288 ± 41237 ± 44*241 ± 38*198 ± 30*187 ± 28*176 ± 28*
Blood glutamate level (μmol/l)
 Control90 ± 1796 ± 2590 ± 2485 ± 2587 ± 2781 ± 2383 ± 22
 HypoINS66 ± 565 ± 967 ± 1165 ± 1357 ± 957 ± 1154 ± 9
 HyperINS72 ± 866 ± 1063 ± 1052 ± 854 ± 1152 ± 949 ± 11
Blood glutamine level (μmol/l)
 Control891 ± 61865 ± 84898 ± 94911 ± 96929 ± 112901 ± 103955 ± 107
 HypoINS885 ± 48858 ± 79872 ± 94795 ± 104859 ± 107848 ± 141816 ± 157
 HyperINS975 ± 49887 ± 64836 ± 72808 ± 59753 ± 79748 ± 73736 ± 73
  • Values are mean ± SE; n = 6;

  • * P < 0.05 vs. basal values;

  • P < 0.05 vs. control group.