TABLE 3

Net hepatic alanine, serine, glycine, threonine, glutamate, and glutamine balance (μmol · kg−1 · min−1) in 18-h–fasted conscious dogs during the basal (−40 to 0 min) and experimental (0–300 min) periods in groups in which plasma insulin levels were kept constant, decreased, or increased

Basal periodExperimental period (min)
3060120180240300
Net hepatic alanine balance (μmol · kg−1 · min−1)
 Control−2.23 ± 0.26−2.53 ± 0.38−2.34 ± 0.44−2.74 ± 0.32−2.82 ± 0.37−2.52 ± 0.33−2.80 ± 0.40
 HypoINS−2.33 ± 0.25−2.47 ± 0.29−2.35 ± 0.28−2.64 ± 0.46−2.45 ± 0.31−2.84 ± 0.28−2.39 ± 0.28
 HyperINS−2.20 ± 0.21−2.43 ± 0.24−2.66 ± 0.40−2.33 ± 0.22−2.15 ± 0.24−2.19 ± 0.29−2.07 ± 0.27
Net hepatic serine balance (μmol · kg−1 · min−1)
 Control−0.68 ± 0.11−0.67 ± 0.13−0.78 ± 0.12−0.93 ± 0.14−0.86 ± 0.14−0.86 ± 0.19−0.83 ± 0.23
 HypoINS−0.62 ± 0.09−0.57 ± 0.10−0.72 ± 0.16−0.92 ± 0.10*−0.65 ± 0.16−0.66 ± 0.11−0.68 ± 0.10
 HyperINS−0.66 ± 0.12−1.08 ± 0.14*−1.02 ± 0.20*−1.16 ± 0.19*−1.05 ± 0.09*−0.82 ± 0.16−0.77 ± 0.21
Net hepatic glycine balance (μmol · kg−1 · min−1)
 Control−1.38 ± 0.20−1.45 ± 0.29−1.43 ± 0.27−1.60 ± 0.14−1.57 ± 0.24−1.60 ± 0.27−1.67 ± 0.38
 HypoINS−0.97 ± 0.12−1.19 ± 0.17−1.49 ± 0.23−1.33 ± 0.16−1.07 ± 0.14−1.15 ± 0.17−1.13 ± 0.20
 HyperINS−1.39 ± 0.21−1.87 ± 0.34−1.92 ± 0.42−1.82 ± 0.52−1.57 ± 0.24−1.23 ± 0.37−1.24 ± 0.41
Net hepatic threonine balance (μmol · kg−1 · min−1)
 Control−0.01 ± 0.07−0.15 ± 0.10−0.14 ± 0.14−0.07 ± 0.34−0.27 ± 0.20−0.27 ± 0.180.25 ± 0.25
 HypoINS−0.09 ± 0.16−0.07 ± 0.13−0.36 ± 0.27−0.66 ± 0.24−0.25 ± 0.18−0.24 ± 0.13−0.37 ± 0.14
 HyperINS−0.51 ± 0.34−0.91 ± 0.65−0.62 ± 0.56−0.87 ± 0.34−0.89 ± 0.44−0.34 ± 0.32−0.36 ± 0.28
Net hepatic glutamate balance (μmol · kg−1 · min−1)
 Control0.12 ± 0.13−0.15 ± 0.12−0.08 ± 0.14−0.03 ± 0.090.01 ± 0.130.12 ± 0.180.11 ± 0.20
 HypoINS0.01 ± 0.06−0.07 ± 0.07−0.13 ± 0.080.04 ± 0.04−0.19 ± 0.210.17 ± 0.19−0.02 ± 0.06
 HyperINS0.00 ± 0.090.04 ± 0.03−0.03 ± 0.05−0.02 ± 0.09−0.19 ± 0.09−0.21 ± 0.12−0.20 ± 0.17
Net hepatic glutamine balance (μmol · kg−1 · min−1)
 Control0.94 ± 0.711.21 ± 0.801.23 ± 0.700.21 ± 0.200.09 ± 0.38−0.52 ± 0.76−0.07 ± 0.36
 HypoINS1.06 ± 0.292.41 ± 1.001.71 ± 0.69−0.60 ± 0.50−0.77 ± 0.400.14 ± 0.72−0.53 ± 0.27
 HyperINS0.75 ± 0.400.39 ± 1.300.86 ± 2.27−0.66 ± 0.38−0.24 ± 0.24−1.02 ± 0.56−0.84 ± 0.37
  • Values are mean ± SE; n = 6;

  • * P < 0.05 vs. basal values.