TABLE 1

Clinical characteristics at birth and at the time of the study and glucose homeostasis parameters of the SGA and AGA groups

CharacteristicSGA (n = 171)AGA (n = 233)P value
At birth
 Gestational age (weeks)40 (1)40 (1)0.69
 Birth weight (g)2500 (270)3408 (220)<0.0001
 Birth length (cm)46.9 (2.0)50.4 (0.8)<0.0001
 Ponderal index (g · cm3 · 10−3)24.5 (3.9)26.6 (1.4)<0.0001
At the time of the study
 Age (years)20.5 (2.1)20.7 (2.2)0.36
 Sex (F/M)91/80129/1040.76
 Weight (kg)62.8 (13.6)66.3 (13.9)0.01
 Height (cm)166.9 (9.9)171.9 (8.7)<0.0001
 BMI (kg/m2)22.4 (3.9)22.3 (4.2)0.76
 Waist/hip ratio0.83 (0.07)0.82 (0.07)0.21
Glucose homeostasis parameters
 Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)4.79 (0.44)4.68 (0.39)0.10
 120-min plasma glucose (mmol/l)5.33 (1.04)5.22 (0.93)0.37
 Fasting serum insulin (pmol/l)35.4 (28.8)29.8 (13.2)0.03
 Insulin AUC (pmol · min−1 · 10−3)33.7 (21.8)27.1 (13.9)0.0007
 Fasting insulin/glucose ratio7.3 (5.6)6.3 (2.8)0.02
  • Data are expressed as means (SD). Test were performed after adjustment for gestational or current age and sex, as well as for sex, age, BMI, family history of type 2 diabetes, smoking, and oral contraception. AUC = (fasting insulin + 4 × 30 min insulin + 3 × 120 min insulin)/8.