TABLE 1

Physical and metabolic characteristics of the study populations in the cross-sectional, prospective, and longitudinal analyses

Cross-sectional analysis
Prospective analysis
Longitudinal analysis
Mean ± SDRangeNonprogressorsProgressorsBaselineFollow-up
n352218548181
Age (years)27 ± 618–4727 ± 627 ± 626 ± 630 ± 7
Body weight (kg)94.3 ± 21.849.5–181.191.0 ± 22.297.8 ± 21.1*92.9 ± 24.398.9 ± 26.0
Body fat (%)32 ± 813–4930 ± 835 ± 730 ± 832 ± 8
Waist (cm)42.4 ± 6.726.0–66.541.3 ± 7.043.6 ± 6.043.6 ± 7.543.6 ± 7.5
Waist-to-thigh ratio1.65 ± 0.171.21–2.251.63 ± 0.161.64 ± 0.171.62 ± 0.131.70 ± 0.15
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)4.8 ± 0.63.4–6.64.7 ± 0.65.2 ± 0.64.8 ± 0.54.9 ± 0.4*
Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/l)240 ± 10854–738222 ± 102246 ± 102198 ± 90228 ± 90
2-h plasma glucose (mmol/l)6.6 ± 1.62.6–10.95.8 ± 1.26.7 ± 0.85.7 ± 1.16.8 ± 1.7
M-low2.7 ± 1.11.3–8.93.00 ± 1.312.37 ± 0.703.1 ± 1.42.6 ± 0.9
M-high (mg/kg EMBS/min)8.8 ± 2.13.2–14.29.28 ± 2.088.59 ± 1.82*9.2 ± 2.18.7 ± 2.2*
AIR (pmol/l)1,482 ± 9966–7,5181590 ± 9541212 ± 792*1,554 ± 9421,632 ± 1,080
Basal EGO (mg/kg EMBS/min)1.91 ± 0.231.32–2.601.91 ± 0.251.91 ± 0.261.91 ± 0.241.96 ± 0.25
WBC (cell/mm3)8,107 ± 2,0213,700–1,19007,877 ± 1,9938,555 ± 1,7807,643 ± 1,9978,215 ± 2,089*
Neutrophil count (cell/mm3)4,977 ± 1,7601,820–1,15874,900 ± 1,7275,110 ± 1,6554,637 ± 1,7105,003 ± 1,6204
Lymphocyte count (cell/mm3)2,441 ± 78168–5,5932,373 ± 6962,576 ± 8132,357 ± 7232,481 ± 789
Monocyte count (cell/mm3)440 ± 2500–1,118478 ± 235352 ± 290§433 ± 216476 ± 185
Eosinophil count (cell/mm3)196 ± 1570–720189 ± 155225 ± 204217 ± 158204 ± 144
Basophil count (cell/mm3)40 ± 520–24647 ± 647 ± 1350 ± 568 ± 8*
  • Data are means ± SD. Significant differences between progressors and nonprogressors in the prospective analysis and between baseline and follow-up variables in the longitudinal analysis are indicated as follows:

  • *

    * P < 0.05,

  • P < 0.001,

  • P < 0.0001, and

  • §

    § P < 0.01. EMBS = fat-free mass + 17.7 kg. EGO, endogenous glucose output.