TABLE 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes

AER categories
P value
NormoalbuminuriaMicroalbuminuriaProteinuria
Sex (M/F)37/518/98/11NS
Age (years)38 ± 934 ± 839 ± 9NS
Age at diabetes onset (years)17 ± 1011 ± 710 ± 50.001
Diabetes duration (years)21 ± 1023 ± 1129 ± 70.005
HbA1c (%)8.1 ± 1.49.3 ± 2.19.6 ± 1.4<0.0001
SBP (mmHg)122 ± 11124 ± 13138 ± 14<0.0001
DBP (mmHg)70 ± 872 ± 778 ± 80.001
MBP (mmHg)87 ± 889 ± 897 ± 9<0.0001
Hypertension (yes/no)27/6111/618/1<0.0001
Antihypertensive therapy (yes/no)8/806/1117/2<0.001
RAS blocker (yes/no)5/835/1211/8<0.0001
Serum creatinine (mg/dl)0.87 ± 0.180.99 ± 0.261.31 ± 0.28<0.0001
GFR (ml·min−1·1.73 m−2)112 ± 23102 ± 3166 ± 22<0.0001
AER* (μg/min)6.2 (1.8–18.2)30.9 (5.7–164.8)839.0 (41.4–4,630.0)<0.0001
Retinopathy (none/background/proliferative)35/38/133/7/71/0/18<0.0001
  • Data are n, mean ± SD, or median (range). RAS, renin-angiotensin system.

  • *

    * AER values reflect the median of three measurements at time of kidney biopsy.