TABLE 1

Baseline characteristics

Type 1 diabetic patientsHealthy control subjects
n (men/women)15 (8/7)15 (10/5)
Age (years)33.6 ± 10.331.5 ± 8.4
BMI (kg/m2)23.2 ± 2.323.2 ± 2.9
Duration of diabetes (years)15.5 ± 6.9
Insulin dose in diabetic patients (units/kg)0.72 ± 0.26
Systolic BP (mmHg)135 ± 10128 ± 9
Diastolic BP (mmHg)79 ± 675 ± 7.5
Heart rate (bpm)71 ± 10*63 ± 7
HbA1c (%)7.37 ± 0.605.13 ± 0.33
Glucagon (pmol/l)13.6 ± 3.415.6 ± 4.7
C-peptide (nmol/l)<0.010.49 ± 0.21
Epinephrine (nmol/l)0.23 ± 0.100.17 ± 0.08
Norepinephrine (nmol/l)0.76 ± 0.350.59 ± 0.28
Cortisol (μmol/l)0.61 ± 0.310.57 ± 0.33
GH (IU/l)19.1 ± 20.510.2 ± 19.9
VMCA (cm/s)72.2 ± 3.970.8 ± 4.8
  • Data are means ± SD.

  • *

    * P < 0.05 vs. control subjects,

  • P < 0.01 vs. control subjects. VMCA, median cerebral artery velocity; BP, blood pressure.