TABLE 2

Glycemic thresholds for hemodynamic and symptom responses to hypoglycemia

Type 1 diabetic patients
Healthy control subjects
Glycemic threshold (glucose, mmol/l)Magnitude of responseGlycemic threshold (glucose, mmol/l)Magnitude of response
Systolic BP (mmHg)
 Placebo2.40 ± 0.05*2.5 ± 2.0*2.57 ± 0.04−3.4 ± 2.6
 Theophylline2.90 ± 0.07−5.9 ± 2.9none−1.7 ± 2.2
Diastolic BP (mmHg)
 Placebo3.35 ± 0.05−5.6 ± 0.93.24 ± 0.06−8.5 ± 1.1
 Theophylline3.86 ± 0.12−7.0 ± 1.13.43 ± 0.05*−7.4 ± 1.8
Pulse pressure (mmHg)
 Placebo2.69 ± 0.05*4.9 ± 1.33.22 ± 0.056.5 ± 1.9
 Theophylline3.47 ± 0.052.6 ± 1.53.59 ± 0.067.7 ± 1.9
Heart rate (bpm)
 Placebo3.38 ± 0.056.5 ± 3.33.22 ± 0.0510.7 ± 1.9
 Theophylline3.86 ± 0.1214.9 ± 2.53.43 ± 0.0617.7 ± 2.9
Sweating response (g/m)§
 Placebo2.38 ± 0.07*59 ± 11*2.78 ± 0.10102 ± 10
 Theophylline2.66 ± 0.0871 ± 173.05 ± 0.1193 ± 9
Hypoglycemic symptoms
 Placebo3.00 ± 0.05*13.1 ± 2.8*3.47 ± 0.0521.3 ± 2.6
 Theophylline3.37 ± 0.0515.9 ± 3.43.46 ± 0.0620.8 ± 2.4
  • Data are means ± SE.

  • *

    * P < 0.05 between placebo tests in diabetic patients versus control subjects;

  • P < 0.01 for differences between placebo and theophylline tests;

  • P < 0.05 for differences between placebo and theophylline tests;

  • §

    § values in diabetic patients are derived from six diabetic patients who had responses during both tests.