TABLE 3

Associations between mortality and urinary albumin excretion and plasma concentrations of markers of endothelial function and inflammatory activity at baseline during a 10-year follow-up in 328 patients with type 2 diabetes

Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 4
+ C-reactive protein
Urinary albumin excretion3.01 (1.96–4.60)*2.36 (1.54–3.63)*1.78 (1.12–2.83)1.86 (1.17–2.96)
4.16 (2.54–6.81)*4.74 (2.82–7.96)*2.86 (1.61–5.09)*2.76 (1.52–4.85)*
von Willebrand factor1.08 (0.64–1.85)1.02 (0.59–1.76)0.96 (0.55–1.65)0.80 (0.46–1.40)
2.66 (1.67–4.24)*1.89 (1.17–3.08)*1.41 (0.85–2.32)1.16 (0.70–1.43)
Tissue-type plasminogen activator0.99 (0.61–1.59)1.06 (0.65–1.71)1.01 (0.62–1.64)0.78 (0.46–1.30)
1.31 (0.83–2.06)1.48 (0.94–2.34)1.42 (0.90–2.25)1.10 (0.68–1.79)
+ C-reactive protein
Soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 11.95 (1.16–3.29)*1.52 (0.89–2.58)1.49 (0.87–2.56)1.86 (1.05–3.28)1.74 (0.99–3.08)
2.54 (1.53–4.21)*2.05 (1.22–3.42)*1.84 (1.08–3.12)2.26 (1.29–3.94)*2.11 (1.20–3.70)*
Soluble E-selectin1.28 (0.79–2.05)1.28 (0.79–2.08)1.08 (0.66–1.77)1.00 (0.60–1.66)
1.35 (0.85–2.16)2.03 (1.24–3.32)*1.54 (0.93–2.55)1.04 (0.60–1.82)
+ Soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1
C-reactive protein1.76 (1.04–3.00)1.80 (1.06–3.08)1.47 (0.86–2.53)1.28 (0.73–2.22)1.26 (0.72–2.21)
2.86 (1.73–4.71)*2.92 (1.76–4.85)*2.23 (1.33–3.75)*1.86 (1.17–2.96)1.66 (0.95–2.92)
  • Data are relative risks (95% CI) for micro- and macroalbuminuria, with normoalbuminuria as the reference category, and for the second and third tertile of distribution of the variable under consideration, with the first tertile as the reference category. The cutoff values for the second and third tertile were as follows: von Willebrand factor, 67.9 and 111.9%; tissue-type plasminogen activator, 5.2 and 8.1 μg/l; soluble E-selectin, 52.8 and 79.2 μg/l; soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, 546.4 and 908.2 μg/l; and C-reactive protein, 1.9 and 5.5 mg/l. Model 1: unadjusted; model 2: adjusted for age, sex, diabetes duration, and prior cardiovascular disease; model 3: same as model 2, plus adjusted for urinary albumin excretion; and model 4: same as model 3, plus adjusted for BMI, systolic blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and HbA1c.

  • *

    * P < 0.01;

  • P < 0.05;

  • additional adjustment for soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 or von Willebrand factor showed comparable results.