TABLE 4

Cardiovascular risk factors and plasma concentrations of markers of endothelial function and inflammatory activity as determinants of the longitudinal development of urinary albumin excretion (natural log-transformed) over a 10-year period in 328 patients with type 2 diabetes

Baseline (single) measurement of determinants
Longitudinal (multiple) measurements of determinants
Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2
BMI (per 1 kg/m2)0.067 (0.024 to 0.110)*0.070 (0.031 to 0.109)*0.043 (0.016 to 0.070)*0.035 (0.004 to 0.066)
Smoking (ever vs. never)0.222 (−0.286 to 0.730)0.245 (−0.208 to 0.698)0.070 (−0.357 to 0.497)0.131 (−0.226 to 0.488)
Systolic blood pressure (per 10 mmHg)0.026 (0.018 to 0.034)*0.014 (0.003 to 0.024)0.123 (0.100 to 0.155)*0.141 (0.100 to 0.183)*
Diastolic blood pressure (per 10 mmHg)0.421 (0.222 to 0.611)*0.102 (−0.110 to 0.314)0.152 (0.099 to 0.205)*0.003 (−0.077 to 0.083)
Total cholesterol (per 1.0 mmol/l)0.183 (0.020 to 0.346)0.001 (−0.154 to 0.164)0.105 (0.046 to 0.164)*0.040 (−0.040 to 0.120)
HDL cholesterol (per 0.1 mmol/l)−0.052 (−0.104 to 0.000)0.023 (−0.023 to 0.080)−0.007 (−0.028 to 0.014)0.003 (−0.020 to 0.026)
Triglycerides (per 1.0 mmol/l)0.147 (0.051 to 0.243)*0.092 (0.000 to 0.182)0.040 (0.016 to 0.064)*0.021 (−0.010 to 0.052)
Creatinine (per 10 μmol/l)0.144 (0.061 to 0.228)*0.071 (0.017 to 0.126)*0.057 (0.027 to 0.087)*0.063 (0.033 to 0.093)*
HbA1c (per 1.0%)0.289 (0.191 to 0.387)*0.175 (0.067 to 0.283)*0.027 (−0.006 to 0.060)0.058 (0.017 to 0.099)*
Prior cardiovascular disease (yes vs. no)0.719 (−0.110 to 1.548)0.261 (−0.519 to 1.041)0.526 (−0.142 to 1.194)0.092 (−0.533 to 0.717)
von Willebrand factor (per 10% point)0.079 (0.028 to 0.131)*0.047 (0.000 to 0.094)0.014 (0.000 to 0.028)0.009 (−0.008 to 0.026)
Tissue-type plasminogen activator (per 1.0 μg/l)0.015 (−0.005 to 0.035)0.019 (0.001 to 0.037)0.011 (0.000 to 0.023)0.011 (−0.001 to 0.023)
Soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (per 100 μg/l)0.038 (−0.005 to 0.081)0.017 (−0.016 to 0.050)0.018 (−0.002 to 0.037)0.014 (−0.004 to 0.032)
Soluble E-selectin (per 10 μg/l)0.076 (0.019 to 0.133)*0.076 (0.029 to 0.123)*0.035 (0.004 to 0.066)0.004 (−0.028 to 0.035)§
C-reactive protein (per 1.0 mg/l)0.083 (0.039 to 0.125)*0.061 (0.022 to 0.100)*0.017 (0.005 to 0.288)*0.017 (0.005 to 0.288)
Fibrinogen (per 1.0 μmol/l)0.243 (0.137 to 0.349)*0.132 (0.034 to 0.230)*0.070 (0.041 to 0.099)*0.061 (0.032 to 0.090)
  • Data are regression coefficients (95% CI) calculated with GEE analysis, which reflects averaged associations. For example, a regression coefficient of 0.067 for the association between BMI and urinary albumin excretion (top left) means that for each increase in BMI of 1 kg/m2, urinary albumin excretion increases by e0.067 = 1.07 mg/24h. Model 1: univariate; model 2: adjusted for sex, age diabetes duration, prior cardiovascular disease, and classic cardiovascular risk factors (BMI, smoking, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, and HbA1c).

  • *

    * P < 0.01;

  • P < 0.05;

  • because fibrinogen was measured from 1990 onward, the coefficients for fibrinogen reflect the association with the longitudinal development of urinary albumin excretion over a 7-year period;

  • §

    § the point estimate of the regression coefficient of soluble E-selectin decreased after adjustment for BMI, total cholesterol, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure.