TABLE 5

Relationships among the longitudinal developments of plasma markers of inflammatory activity and of plasma markers of endothelial function over a 10-year period in 328 patients with type 2 diabetes

Outcome variable of interestDeterminants
von Willebrand factorTissue-type plasminogen activatorSoluble vascular cell adhesion moleculeSoluble E-selectinFibrinogenC-reactive protein
C-reactive protein
 Model 10.046 (0.034 to 0.058)*0.016 (0.008 to 0.024)*0.019 (0.009 to 0.029)*0.068 (0.046 to 0.090)*0.142 (0.113 to 0.171)*
 Model 20.032 (0.022 to 0.041)*0.011 (0.003 to 0.019)*0.017 (0.005 to 0.029)*0.045 (0.023 to 0.067)*0.148 (0.119 to 0.177)*
Fibrinogen
 Model 10.085 (0.040 to 0.130)*0.009 (−0.013 to 0.031)0.025 (−0.006 to 0.056)0.019 (−0.040 to 0.078)0.155 (0.126 to 0.184)*
 Model 20.067 (0.029 to 0.105)*0.005 (−0.017 to 0.027)−0.004 (−0.035 to 0.027)0.024 (−0.039 to 0.087)0.154 (0.123 to 0.185)*
von Willebrand factor
 Model 10.010 (0.006 to 0.014)*0.026 (0.022 to 0.030)*0.026 (0.018 to 0.034)*0.022 (0.012 to 0.032)*0.013 (0.009 to 0.017)*
 Model 20.009 (0.005 to 0.013)*0.024 (0.020 to 0.028)*0.020 (0.010 to 0.030)*0.020 (0.010 to 0.030)*0.011 (0.007 to 0.015)*
Tissue-type plasminogen activator
 Model 10.024 (0.016 to 0.032)*0.003 (−0.003 to 0.009)0.053 (0.041 to 0.065)*0.006 (–0.008 to 0.020)0.010 (0.006 to 0.014)*
 Model 20.019 (0.013 to 0.025)*0.007 (0.001 to 0.013)0.044 (0.032 to 0.056)0.003 (–0.013 to 0.019)0.006 (0.002 to 0.010)*
Soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1
 Model 10.033 (0.027 to 0.039)*0.002 (−0.002 to 0.006)0.008 (−0.004 to 0.020)0.007 (−0.003 to 0.017)0.004 (0.000 to 0.008)
 Model 20.024 (0.019 to 0.028)*0.003 (−0.001 to 0.007)0.015 (0.001 to 0.029)0.001 (−0.011 to 0.013)0.004 (0.000 to 0.004)
Soluble E-selectin
 Model 10.012 (0.008 to 0.016)*0.008 (0.004 to 0.012)*0.004 (0.000 to 0.008)0.001 (−0.007 to 0.009)0.008 (0.004 to 0.012)*
 Model 20.006 (0.003 to 0.009)*0.006 (0.004 to 0.008)*0.007 (0.003 to 0.011)*0.002 (−0.006 to 0.010)0.006 (0.002 to 0.010)*
  • Data are regression coefficients (95% CI) calculated with GEE analysis, which reflects averaged associations. For example, a regression coefficient of 0.046 for the association between von Willebrand factor and C-reactive protein means that for each increase in von Willebrand factor of 10% point, C-reactive protein increases by e0.046 = 1.05 mg/l. For all outcome variables (except for fibrinogen), the natural log was used in the analyses. For von Willebrand factor, coefficients are expressed per 10% point; for tissue-type plasminogen activator, per 1.0 μg/l; for soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, per 100 μg/l; for soluble E-selectin, per 10 μg/l; for fibrinogen, per 1.0 μmol/l; and for C-reactive protein, per 1.0 mg/l. Model 1: univariate; model 2: adjusted for sex, age, diabetes duration, prior cardiovascular disease, and classic cardiovascular risk factors (BMI, smoking, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, and HbA1c).

  • *

    * P < 0.01;

  • P < 0.05;

  • because fibrinogen was measured from 1990 onward, the coefficients for fibrinogen reflect the association with the longitudinal development of markers of endothelial function over a 7-year period.