TABLE 6

Relationships among the longitudinal developments of cardiovascular risk factors (determinants) and plasma concentrations of markers of endothelial function and inflammatory activity (outcome variables) over a 10-year period in 328 patients with type 2 diabetes

von Willebrand factorTissue-type plasminogen activatorSoluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1Soluble E-selectinC-reactive proteinFibrinogen
BMI
 Model 10.012 (0.004 to 0.020)*0.036 (0.024 to 0.048)*−0.009 (−0.021 to 0.003)0.030 (0.020 to 0.039)*0.083 (0.065 to 0.101)*0.057 (0.006 to 0.108)
 Model 20.011 (0.003 to 0.032)*0.031 (0.019 to 0.043)*−0.009 (−0.021 to 0.003)0.022 (0.012 to 0.032)*0.077 (0.059 to 0.095)*0.055 (0.006 to 0.104)
Smoking
 Model 10.074 (−0.024 to 0.172)0.108 (−0.097 to 0.247)0.016 (−0.111 to 0.143)−0.032 (−0.136 to 0.072)0.323 (0.064 to 0.582)0.379 (−0.236 to 0.994)
 Model 20.092 (0.000 to 0.186)0.121 (−0.018 to 0.260)0.029 (−0.091 to 0.149)−0.033 (−0.139 to 0.073)0.400 (0.179 to 0.621)*0.309 (−0.242 to 0.860)
Systolic blood pressure
 Model 10.006 (−0.006 to 0.017)−0.004 (−0.019 to 0.010)0.009 (−0.005 to 0.022)0.013 (0.004 to 0.022)*0.003 (−0.022 to 0.029)0.109 (0.029 to 0.189)*
 Model 2−0.007 (−0.021 to 0.007)−0.018 (−0.036 to 0.001)0.012 (−0.008 to 0.031)0.000 (−0.013 to 0.006)−0.009 (−0.043 to 0.025)0.091 (−0.016 to 0.198)
Diastolic blood pressure
 Model 10.021 (−0.001 to 0.043)0.021 (−0.008 to 0.050)−0.012 (−0.036 to 0.012)0.051 (0.033 to 0.069)*0.024 (−0.027 to 0.075)0.071 (−0.090 to 0.232)
 Model 20.033 (0.006 to 0.060)0.033 (−0.004 to 0.070)−0.013 (−0.050 to 0.024)0.040 (0.018 to 0.062)*0.028 (−0.039 to 0.095)−0.006 (−0.258 to 0.138)
Total cholesterol
 Model 10.015 (−0.005 to 0.035)0.062 (0.039 to 0.086)*−0.022 (−0.044 to 0.000)0.066 (0.046 to 0.086)*0.044 (0.003 to 0.085)0.029 (−0.116 to 0.174)
 Model 20.001 (−0.026 to 0.028)0.026 (−0.001 to 0.053)−0.031 (−0.062 to 0.000)0.041 (0.023 to 0.059)*0.000 (−0.053 to 0.053)0.083 (−0.103 to 0.269)
HDL cholesterol
 Model 1−0.004 (−0.012 to 0.004)−0.012 (−0.021 to −0.003)*−0.004 (−0.016 to 0.007)−0.009 (−0.015 to −0.002)*−0.045 (−0.062 to −0.028)*−0.117 (−0.161 to −0.072)*
 Model 20.004 (−0.003 to 0.011)−0.003 (−0.013 to 0.007)−0.002 (−0.014 to 0.010)−0.002 (−0.008 to 0.004)−0.030 (−0.046 to −0.013)*−0.123 (−0.174 to −0.073)*
Triglycerides
 Model 10.011 (0.001 to 0.021)0.032 (0.014 to 0.050)*0.004 (−0.006 to 0.014)0.025 (0.009 to 0.041)*0.042 (0.024 to 0.060)*−0.043 (−0.092 to 0.006)
 Model 20.006 (−0.004 to 0.016)0.018 (0.002 to 0.038)0.015 (0.003 to 0.027)0.006 (−0.006 to 0.178)0.017 (−0.005 to 0.039)−0.096 (−0.190 to −0.002)
Creatinine
 Model 10.012 (0.006 to 0.018)*−0.016 (−0.028 to −0.005)*0.027 (0.019 to 0.036)*−0.011 (−0.019 to −0.002)0.000 (−0.013 to 0.013)0.121 (0.069 to 0.172)*
 Model 20.015 (0.008 to 0.021)*−0.012 (−0.024 to 0.001)0.027 (0.018 to 0.036)*−0.005 (−0.014 to 0.004)0.013 (0.002 to 0.025)0.127 (0.077 to 0.177)*
HbA1c
 Model 10.030 (0.018 to 0.041)*0.040 (0.022 to 0.058)*−0.011 (−0.029 to 0.007)0.049 (0.039 to 0.059)*0.064 (0.039 to 0.090)*0.051 (−0.039 to 0.141)
 Model 20.030 (0.016 to 0.044)*0.022 (0.000 to 0.044)*−0.003 (−0.021 to 0.015)0.040 (0.028 to 0.052)**0.049 (0.020 to 0.078)*0.071 (−0.029 to 0.171)
Prior cardiovascular disease
 Model 10.045 (−0.114 to 0.204)0.024 (−0.148 to 0.196)0.179 (0.020 to 0.338)−0.039 (−0.190 to 0.112)0.400 (0.043 to 0.757)1.813 (0.521 to 3.105)*
 Model 2−0.023 (−0.184 to 0.138)−0.022 (−0.189 to 0.145)0.111 (−0.044 to 0.266)−0.070 (−0.215 to 0.075)0.296 (−0.037 to 0.629)1.497 (0.101 to 2.893)
  • Data are regression coefficients (95% CI) from GEE analysis, which reflects averaged associations. For example, a regression coefficient of 0.012 for the association between BMI and von Willebrand factor means that for each increase in BMI of 1.0 kg/m2, von Willebrand factor increases by e0.012 = 1.01% point. All outcome variables except fibrinogen were natural log-transformed. For BMI, coefficients are expressed per 1.0 kg/m2; for smoking, ever versus never; for blood pressures, per 10 mmHg; for total cholesterol, per 1.0 mmol/l; for HDL cholesterol, per 0.1 mmol/l; for triglycerides, per 1.0 mmol/l; for creatinine, per 10 μmol/l; and for HbA1c, per 1.0%. Model 1: univariate; model 2: adjusted for sex, age, diabetes duration, prior cardiovascular disease, and classic cardiovascular risk factors (BMI, smoking, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, and HbA1c).

  • *

    * P < 0.01;

  • P < 0.05;

  • because fibrinogen was measured from 1990 onward, the coefficients for fibrinogen reflect associations over a 7-year period.