TABLE 3

Mean ± SE plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon epinephrine, norepinephrine, and pancreatic polypeptide concentrations during slightly higher insulin infusion rate (4.5, 6.0, 7.5, and 9.0 pmol · kg−1 · min−1) stepped hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamps from 60 to 300 min in a subset of subjects (n = 5)*

Time (min)
P
−15060120180240300
Glucose (mmol/l)5.3 ± 0.35.3 ± 0.25.3 ± 0.24.7 ± 0.14.2 ± 0.13.6 ± 0.23.0 ± 0.00.8175
Insulin (pmol/l)38 ± 440 ± 842 ± 11265 ± 11366 ± 62421 ± 40515 ± 380.0389
C-peptide (nmol/l)0.4 ± 0.10.4 ± 0.10.3 ± 0.10.3 ± 0.00.2 ± 0.00.1 ± 0.00.1 ± 0.00.0010
Glucagon (pmol/l)23 ± 221 ± 121 ± 221 ± 222 ± 325 ± 329 ± 10.0002
Epinephrine (pmol/l)110 ± 15125 ± 5080 ± 10125 ± 40225 ± 951,090 ± 2552,300 ± 5150.1035
Norepinephrine (nmol/l)0.89 ± 0.050.87 ± 0.090.82 ± 0.080.96 ± 0.140.95 ± 0.071.11 ± 0.121.40 ± 0.270.1897
Pancreatic polypeptide (pmol/l)30 ± 330 ± 328 ± 329 ± 339 ± 256 ± 11117 ± 320.2158
Growth hormone (pmol/l)76 ± 5571 ± 4972 ± 5049 ± 2772 ± 50107 ± 28365 ± 1050.1074
Cortisol (nmol/l)430 ± 95365 ± 75285 ± 65290 ± 40295 ± 65385 ± 70590 ± 750.0010
  • *

    * To convert glucose to mg/dl, divide by 0.0551; C-peptide to ng/ml, divide by 0.331; insulin to μU/ml, divide by 6.0; glucagon to pg/ml, divide by 0.2871; epinephrine to pg/ml, divide by 5.458; norepinephrine to pg/ml, divide by 0.005911; pancreatic polypeptide to pg/ml, divide by 0.239; growth hormone to ng/ml, divide by 44.15; cortisol to μg/dl, divide by 27.59.

  • Compared with responses to lower doses of insulin with tolbutamide.