TABLE 1

Obesity indices and metabolic parameters in middle-aged men by PPARGC1 haplotype combination

Haplotype combination
All*0,0/0,00,1/0,00,1/0,10,0/1,1 (0,1/1,0)0,1/1,11,1/1,1P
n59115281152085970
Age (years)49.949.849.651.349.949.150.60.561
(49.4–50.3)(48.9–50.6)(48.4–50.7)(48.7–53.9)(49.0–50.6)(47.8–50.4)(49.3–51.9)
BMI (kg/m2)27.227.227.526.127.227.127.00.703
(26.9–27.5)(26.6–27.8)(26.6–28.4)(24.0–28.1)(26.8–27.7)(26.2–28.1)(26.0–27.9)
Waist circumference (cm)98.098.498.796.498.198.297.00.767
(97.2–98.9)96.8–100.2)(96.4–101.0)(90.7–102.0)(96.7–99.5)(95.5–101.0)(94.2–99.7)
Hip circumference (cm)104.3104.0105.3102.3104.2104.9104.80.739
(103.6–105.1)(102.5–105.4)(103.1–107.5)(97.5–107.1)(103.0–105.3)(102.7–107.1)(102.6–106.9)
Waist-to-hip ratio0.9410.9470.9380.9420.9430.9390.9250.262
(0.935–0.946)(0.937–0.958)(0.932–0.952)(0.913–0.971)(0.935–0.952)(0.913–0.965)(0.909–0.941)
Body fat (kg)19.819.921.517.919.719.419.50.400
(19.2–20.5)(18.5–21.1)(19.8–23.2)(14.6–21.1)(18.7–20.7)(17.3–21.4)(17.7–21.4)0.304
Abdominal visceral fat (cm2)§93.391.2101.777.595.288.392.90.250
(89.2–97.4)(82.8–99.6)(91.2–112.2)(57.9–97.2)(88.0–104.2)(77.5–99.2)(79.5–106.2)
Abdominal subcutaneous fat (cm2)§189.1198.9191.0157.8183.8193.3189.00.415
(181.0–197.2)(183.4–214.4)(165.8–217.5)(130.0–185.7)(170.3–197.3)(166.7–220.0)(163.6–214.3)
Glucose (mmol/l)5.165.125.255.385.185.025.140.138
(5.11–5.20)(5.04–5.20)(5.13–5.37)(4.98–5.73)(5.09–5.24)(4.87–5.17)(5.05–5.31)
Insulin (pmol/l)47.448.048.052.247.446.843.20.956
(44.4–49.8)(41.4–54.6)(41.4–54.6)(28.8–75.0)(42.6–52.2)(37.8–55.2)(37.2–48.6)
Cholesterol (mmol/l)5.955.925.895.976.026.025.920.919
(5.87–6.05)(5.74–6.10)(5.66–6.16)(5.35–6.57)(5.87–6.15)(5.74–6.28)(5.66–6.15)
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.651.681.681.621.601.731.610.882
(1.55–1.75)(1.50–1.86)(1.39–1.99)(1.21–2.03)(1.46–1.75)(1.33–2.12)(1.31–1.89)
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.401.371.401.371.421.401.420.693
(1.37–1.42)(1.32–1.42)(1.33–1.45)(1.22–1.53)(1.37–1.45)(1.32–1.47)(1.34–1.50)
Type 2 diabetes (yes/no)24/5674/1483/782/137/2014/553/670.340
  • Data are n of observations or untransformed means (95% CI). Haplotypes are assigned numbers in the order of polymorphisms along the PPARGC1 gene locus. 0, more-common allele (482glycine, +2962A); 1, less-common allele (482serine, +2962G).

  • *

    * Includes six study subjects with rare haplotype combinations;

  • comparison among haplotype combinations, ANOVA adjusted for age;

  • adjusted for lean body mass;

  • §

    § performed in 512 men, numbers for each haplotype combination shown are 129, 68, 14, 185, 50 and 60;

  • subjects with type 2 diabetes are excluded;

  • χ2 test.