TABLE 2

Obesity indices and metabolic parameters in middle-aged women by PPARGC1 haplotype combination

Haplotype combination
All*0,0/0,00,1/0,00,1/0,10,0/1,1 (0,1/1,0)0,1/1,11,1/1,1PP
n4671208181456147
Age (years)56.356.456.454.856.256.056.50.926
(55.9–56.6)(55.6–57.2)(55.4–57.4)(50.8–58.7)(55.6–56.9)(55.0–57.0)(55.3–57.8)
BMI (kg/m2)26.527.027.127.525.227.026.70.0050.006
(26.1–26.9)(26.1–27.8)(26.0–28.1)(24.7–30.3)(24.6–25.9)(25.9–28.0)(25.3–28.1)
Waist circumference (cm)88.990.190.589.085.390.890.50.0100.012
(26.1–26.9)(26.1–27.8)(26.0–28.1)(24.7–30.3)(24.6–25.9)(25.9–28.0)(25.3–28.1)
Hip circumference (cm)104.5105.3106.4108.0101.7104.7106.50.0300.075
(103.4–105.5)(103.1–107.5)(103.9–108.9)(100.7–116.3)(99.9–103.6)(101.7–107.7)(103.3–109.6)
Waist-to-hip ratio0.8500.8580.8490.8190.8390.8680.8470.1290.379
(0.843–0.857)(0.944–0.872)(0.832–0.866)(0.747–0.881)(0.828–0.851)(0.848–0.886)(0.821–0.874)
Body fat (kg)23.324.524.227.120.924.723.10.0050.007
(22.5–24.2)(22.8–26.3)(22.4–26.3)(21.3–32.9)(19.5–22.3)(22.2–27.1)(20.2–26.0)0.028§0.009§
Abdominal visceral fat (cm2)78.780.982.586.070.689.774.90.0930.319
(74.4–83.0)(72.8–88.8)(70.9–94.1)(40.0–131.9)(63.5–77.7)(76.6–102.8)(61.8–88.1)
Abdominal subcutaneous fat (cm2)260.1264.6274.2309.8237.8281.9251.80.0810.340
(249.1–271.1)(242.1–287.2)(247.0–301.4)(211.3–408.4)(219.0–256.6)(250.9–312.9)(212.2–291.3)
Glucose (mmol/l)5.025.055.125.074.914.945.050.0330.117
(4.96–5.08)(4.96–5.13)(5.01–5.23)(4.11–5.94)(4.82–4.98)(4.83–5.11)(4.86–5.25)0.144#0.090#
Insulin (pmol/l)43.545.046.246.239.647.442.60.3830.643
(41.4–46.2)(40.8–49.2)(41.4–51.4)(29.4–61.8)(36.6–43.2)(40.2–55.2)(36.0–49.2)
Cholesterol (mmol/l)6.106.006.086.396.186.136.050.6820.720
(6.00–6.20)(5.82–6.18)(5.87–6.31)(5.43–7.34)(5.99–6.38)(5.82–6.44)(5.79–6.34)
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.211.231.241.641.091.221.280.0280.146
(1.15–1.27)(1.12–1.34)(1.13–1.34)(0.81–2.46)(1.01–1.19)(1.07–1.37)(1.01–1.53)0.261#0.318#
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.731.711.711.581.861.681.680.0060.028
(1.71–1.78)(1.63–1.78)(1.63–1.81)(1.32–1.84)(1.78–1.91)(1.58–1.76)(1.55–1.78)0.137#0.015#
Type 2 diabetes (yes/no)13/4544/1162/791/71/1442/593/440.3780.184**
  • Data are n of observations or untransformed means (95% CI). Haplotypes are assigned numbers in the order of polymorphisms along the PPARGC1 gene locus. 0, more-common allele (482glycine, +2962A); 1, less-common allele (482serine, +2962G).

  • *

    * Includes five study subjects with rare haplotype combinations;

  • comparison among haplotype combinations, ANOVA adjusted for age;

  • Tukey’s post hoc comparison between haplotype combinations 0,0/0,0 and 0,0/1,1;

  • §

    § adjusted for lean body mass;

  • performed in 410 female subjects, numbers for each haplotype combination shown are 101, 74, 7, 129, 53 and 41;

  • subjects with type 2 diabetes are excluded;

  • #

    # adjusted for BMI;

  • **

    ** χ2 test.