TABLE 1

Transcripts differentially regulated in MIN6G cells treated for 48 h with palmitate oroleate

FunctionAccession no.Gene namePalmitateOleate
METABOLISM
 LipidAF017175Carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1)+6.2 ± 0.1+5.4 ± 0.6
AI849271Homologous to 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (general purpose)+2.6 ± 0.2+3.2 ± 0.2
AW122523Fatty acyl elongase+2.2 ± 0.3
AB017112Mitochondrial carnitine acylcarnitine translocase (mCAC)+1.8 ± 0.2+2.1 ± 0.3
D296393-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (SCHAD)−2.5 ± 0.6−1.3 ± 0.0
 SteroidM55413Group-specific component+6.1 ± 0.0+3.8 ± 0.4
AA8241023-βhydroxy-δ 5-C27-steroid oxidoreductase>5.0*>2.0
AF064635Putative steroid dehydrogenase (KIK-1)+3.8 ± 1.6
AW120882Homology to retinal short-chain dehydrogenase/ reductase+2.8 ± 0.5
AW122260Cyt p450 51 lanosterol 14-α demethylase+2.7 ± 0.4
AF0573687-Dehydrocholesterol reductase+2.0 ± 0.1
AW050387Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 3>2.0
 Amino acidU70859Cationic amino acid transporter CAT3+6.6 ± 1.3+2.4 ± 0.6
M12330Ornithine decarboxylase+5.4*+3.5 ± 1.0
L10244Spermine/spermidine n1-acetyl transferase>2.0
L42115Insulin-activated amino acid transporter+2.0 ± 0.6
Z49976GAD 67 Glutamic acid decarboxylase 1−2.0 ± 0.1
L03290Cationic amino acid transporter CAT2, low affinity−2.7 ± 0.3
 CarbohydrateD42083Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase 2 (FBPase 2)>5.0>5.0
AI790931Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase 2 (FBPase 1)>5.0>2.0
AW123026Glucosamine-phosphate n-acetyl transferase (GPAT)+3.1 ± 0.7
M17516Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) A4>2.0
D50430Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH)−2.1 ± 0.1
L09192Pyruvate carboxylase (PC)−2.2 ± 0.2−1.8 ± 0.2
X15684GLUT2−12 ± 0.6−2.9 ± 0.2
 Electron transportU08439Balb/c cytochrome C oxidase subunit VIaH>5.0
AI839690Homology to NADH-cytochrome B5 reductase+2.8 ± 0.1
U12961NAD(P)H menadione oxidoreductase 1−2.2 ± 0.2
GROWTH/GENE REGULATION
 TranscriptionX61800CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP δ)+9.2*+5.0 ± 0.1
M31885Inhibitor of DNA-binding 1 (Id1)+8.3 ± 4.4+5.3 ± 2.6
V00727c-fos (FBJ ostesarcoma oncogene)+7.5*+3.8 ± 0.3
U19118LRG-21 (ATF-3)+4.7 ± 0.2
X89749mTGIF+4.3 ± 0.6+2.4 ± 0.3
U20344Gut-enriched Kruppel-like factor+2.7 ± 0.1
M61007CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPβ)+2.6 ± 0.7
AA614971Possibly MAIL (IκBζ)+2.2 ± 0.1
D14485DNA-binding protein A+2.1 ± 0.2
M60285cAMP responsive element modulator (CREM)>2.0
U47008Ngfi-binding protein 1 (EGR-I binding protein 1)+2.0 ± 0.1
AW121012Homologous to ring finger protein 19−2.0 ± 0.0
Y07688Nuclear factor 1, X-type (NfiX1)−2.2 ± 0.3
L08074Glial and testis specific homeobox gene (Nkx6.2)<−2
AF072546Brachyury the second (T2) gene<−2
 GrowthAF056187IGF-1 receptor+5.7 ± 0.5+3.1 ± 0.1
L41352Amphiregulin>5.0>2.0
AJ009862TGF-β1>2.0
 Cell cycleU09507Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21)+3.7 ± 0.3
AF059567Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (p15)+2.2 ± 0.3
U22399p57 Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C−2.3 ± 0.2
INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE
X03505Serum amyloid A3>20>10
X8162724p3 Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin>20*>10
M19681Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)>10>5.0
L12029Stromal cell derived factor 1+5.9*+2.9 ± 0.6
J04596GRO1 oncogene>5.0>5.0
AF049124Neuronal pentraxin 2+3.1 ± 0.8
X59769Interleukin-1 receptor type II+2.5 ± 0.2
STRUCTURAL
 ExtracellularX13986Minopontin+20 ± 0.4+8.2 ± 2.4
M77196Biliary glycoprotein 1+2.5 ± 0.1
U16162Prolyl 4-hydroxylase alpha (I) subunit+2.5 ± 0.5+2.0 ± 0.3
AF039663AC133 antigen homolog (prominin)+2.3 ± 0.1+1.5 ± 0.1
X67809Peptidylpropyl isomerase C-associated protein+2.2 ± 0.2+1.8 ± 0.0
L25274DM-GRASP (CD166 antigen)+2.1 ± 0.2
U87948Epithelial membrane protein 3>2.0>2.0
U91513Ninjurin (nerve injury–induced protein 1)>2.0
L24430Osteocalcin-related protein>2.0
AV087000Cell surface protein L6 antigen<−2.0
AF064749Type IV collagen α 3-subunit−2.2 ± 0.2
 Major histocompatibility complexX00496Ia-associated invariant chain+3.5 ± 0.9
X01838b-2 microglobulin+2.2 ± 0.2
AF016309Histocompatibility 2>2.0
 CytoskeletonM18775Microtubule-associated protein tau−1.9 ± 0.0
AI641895Shroom, PDZ domain actin-binding protein−2.0 ± 0.0
AJ228865CLIP-115 (cytoplasmic linker protein)−2.5 ± 0.0
SIGNALLING
 Ca2+ bindingX66449Calcyclin>5.0>2.0
AI841303Homologous to GAP43+2.8 ± 0.1+1.8 ± 0.1
U41341Calgazzarin+2.7 ± 0.8+2.7 ± 0.8
M16465Calpactin I light chain+2.4 ± 0.3
AW124113BASP1 (NAP-22)−2.7 ± 0.4−1.6 ± 0.1
 PhospholipidAF083497Phospholipase D1 (PLD1)+5.6 ± 2.8+5.4 ± 1.9
D84376Phosphatidic acid phosphatase 2 (PAP2)+3.5 ± 0.3
AI845798Group XII-1 phospholipase A2 (PLA2)+3.3 ± 0.1
 ChannelsU72680Ion channel homolog RIC>10
U04294Long QT syndrome 2>2.0
AF033017Inward rectifying potassium channel protein TWIK-1+2.0 ± 0.1
 PhosphorylationAI845584Related to dual specificity phosphatase 6 (MKP-3)>5.0>5.0
M12056Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase lck+3.7 ± 0.7
U28423Protein kinase inhibitor p58+2.3 ± 0.1+1.9 ± 0.1
AI849305Protein tyrosine phosphatase ζ precursor>2.0
L35236JNK3+2.1 ± 0.2
AW122076Protein phosphatase inhibitor 1A−2.1 ± 0.2−1.9 ± 02
AF011908Apoptosis-associated tyrosin kinase (AATYK)−2.1 ± 0.1
 G-proteinAW121294GTP-binding protein like 1+2.4 ± 0.3
X95761New-Rhobin (oncogene lfc)+2.1 ± 0.1
AB004315Regulator of G-protein signalling 4 (RGS4)>2.0+3.8 ± 0.7
U10551GTP-binding protein (ras-like protein KIR)>2.0
U20238GTPase-activating protein III (GapIII)−2.1 ± 0.1−1.8 ± 0.1
AW049573rap2 interacting protein x−4.6*−2.2 ± 0.1
AW228792Melanophilin<−5.0
SECRETION
 ExocytosisM22012SNAP25+2.0 ± 0.1
 Secreted hormonesAF026537Prodynorphin+10 ± 7.2+1.9 ± 0.5
M18208Pancreatic polypeptide+9.0 ± 4.3+2.2 ± 0.2
D17584Tachykinin 1>5.0
Z46845Glucagon+4.0 ± 1.4+5.2 ± 0.2
U22516Angiogenin+2.5 ± 0.5+2.1 ± 0.2
AF031035Stanniocalcin 2>2.0
U77630Adrenomedullin>2.0
AF045887Angiotensinogen>2.0>2.0
 Secreted proteinsD00073Transthyretin+2.8 ± 0.5+2.4 ± 0.5
AI182588Carboxypeptidase-n+2.8 ± 0.4+2.2 ± 0.2
M38337Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 protein>2.0
M10114Casein-κ>2.0+3.6 ± 0.4
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
 Processing/exportAW122851Homology to FK506-binding protein precursor+19 ± 7.0+10 ± 2.4
AW120711DNAJ b/9+2.6 ± 0.4
AA879709Translocon-associated protein+2.4 ± 0.4
AW122551Endoplasmic reticulum–associated DNAJ+2.1 ± 0.2
AA755004Similar to protein disulfide isomerase–related protein+2.1 ± 0.1+1.9 ± 0.1
AI642389Similar to KDEL endoplasmic reticulum receptor 3>2.0+4.9 ± 1.9
Y00884Protein disulfide isomerase A4>2.0+2.0 ± 0.1
 GlycosylationX98014α-2,8-sialyltransferase V>2.0
AI153959α-2,3-sialyltransferase IV>2.0
AB030836α-2,6-sialyltransferase−2.8 ± 0.6
 ProteolysisM64086Serine protease inhibitor 2-2>10>5.0
M25529Serine protease inhibitor 1-2, α1 antitrypsin 1-2>2.0
AF010254Complement component 1 inhibitor>2.0>2.0
X06086Cathepsin-l+1.9 ± 0.0
 RedoxX91864Glutathione peroxidase 2, pseudogene 1+2.8 ± 0.1
AI843119Glutathione S-transferase homolog>2.0
NOT GROUPED
AJ222586NEFA protein+4.3 ± 0.4+2.8 ± 0.5
AI197161Homologous to RNA polymerase II elongation factor+2.6 ± 0.4
AB008553LIMP II+2.1 ± 0.2+1.7 ± 0.1
AJ250490Receptor activaty modifying protein 2 (RAMP2)>2.0
X67644Gly96>2.0
AB023957Ethanol induced gene>2.0>2.0
L76193Paraoxonase 3>2.0
Z31362(Balb/C) TX01+2.0 ± 0.1
AB015790LR11 sortilin-related receptor>2.0
AI316859Homologous to BRL bromodomain-containing protein−2.0 ± 0.3
M18775Microtubule-associated protein tau<−2.0
D29763Seizure-related gene 6<−2.0
U43085Interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats<−2.0
AF099977Schlafen4<−2.0
  • Transcripts differentially regulated in MIN6 cells treated for 48 h with palmitate. Listed are mRNAs with expression found to be changed ≥1.9-fold in MIN6 cells exposed for 48 h to BSA-coupled palmitate or oleate (molar ratio 3:1) by Affymetrix microarray analyses. Some oleate genes showing smaller changes are also included where the corresponding change for palmitate is ≥1.9-fold. Two independent analyses were performed for each lipid treatment using MIN6 cells separated by eight passages (palmitate) or six passages (oleate). dRNA-samples for hybridization were prepared as described in research design and methods. Mouse U74A arrays were used for the first palmitate replicate and U74A version 2 arrays for the remaining experiments. Genes marked as * in the palmitate column represent those which were unrecognized in the first palmitate replicate by probes sets subsequently defined by Affymetrix to be faulty, but which were called as changed in both of the oleate experiments and in the second palmitate experiment as determined with the corrected chips. Data are mean fold-change ± range for the gene with the listed accession number. For genes not detectable in control cells, but induced in lipid-treated cells, increases in the range of 2- to 4-fold as calculated by the Affymetrix software are indicated by >+2.0. Similarly, >+5.0 indicates estimated fold change between 5 and 10, >+10 indicates between 10 and 20, and >+20 indicates estimated change over 20-fold. For genes present in control cells, but decreased to absent upon treatment, calculated changes in the 2.0- to 10-fold range are indicated as <−2.0. The most conservative change in each of the duplicate experiments is reported.