TABLE 4

Characteristics at diagnosis in antibody-positive patients (GADA, ICA, or both) with adult-onset diabetes started on insulin treatment at diagnosis versus those started later

Insulin at diagnosis
Insulin started later
1 antibody≥2 antibodies1 antibodies≥2 antibodies
n119516
Age (years)3030 (29)54 (31)58 (23)*
 Range21–7330–6330–75
C-peptide (nmol/l)<0.100.19 (0.15)0.41 (0.49)0.22 (0.24)
 Range<0.10–0.610.35–1.00<0.10–0.74
BMI (kg/m2)19.121.0 (3.5)25.7 (4.7)23.9 (4.2)§
 Range16.2–27.320.0–27.818.4–31.1
HbA1c (%)12.210.7 (2.9)5.4 (2.2)9.5 (1.4)
 Range4.8–15.75.1–9.36.5–11.6
No. of antibodies13 (1)1 (0)3 (0)
IA-2A (index)#35.2 (89.2)34.6 (62.2)
(n = 13)(n = 15)
GADA (index)#4.982.1 (128.9)15.1 (25.1)85.2 (169.5)
(n = 1)(n = 17)(n = 4)(n = 15)
ICA (JDF units)#28 (48)18 (0)66 (123)
(n = 19)(n = 1)(n = 16)
  • Data are median (interquartile range) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * Versus insulin at diagnosis/≥2 antibodies, P = 0.004;

  • versus insulin at diagnosis/≥2 antibodies, P = 0.01;

  • versus insulin at diagnosis/≥2 antibodies, P = 0.03;

  • §

    § versus insulin at diagnosis/≥2 antibodies, P = 0.005;

  • versus insulin at diagnosis/≥2 antibodies, P = 0.02;

  • versus insulin later/≥2 antibodies. P = 0.02;

  • #

    # among positive for those antibodies.