TABLE 1

Pregnancy outcome among ND, MD, and SD mice treated with various doses of RA at 9.5 dpc

No RA
25 mg/kg RA
50 mg/kg RA
NDMDSDNDMDSDNDMDSD
Blood glucose (mg/dl)125227*514*127209*510*115233*530*
 ±SE at 9.5 dpc±7±23±49±4±17±33±11±24±40
Blood glucose (mg/dl)116218*522*114240*515*121227*504*
 ±SE at 18.5 dpc±5±19±27±4±12±17±4±18±23
Litters (n)989138129911
Live fetuses (n)1039210513989119107103101
Litter size11.4411.5011.6710.6911.139.9211.8911.449.18
 ±SE±0.47±0.57±0.75±0.57±0.61±0.73±0.42±0.34±0.46
% Resorption6.078.958.336.808.338.425.908.447.02
 ±SE±2.22±3.15±1.97±1.79±3.06±2.89±2.15±2.55±2.24
TL/CRL ratio0.430.430.420.280.22*0.18*0.220.15*0.04*
 ±SE±0.01±0.01±0.02±0.01±0.02±0.01±0.02±0.01±0.02
  • ND; nondiabetic; MD, mildly diabetic; SD, severely diabetic; TL/CRL ratio, tail length/crown-rump length ratio.

  • *

    * P < 0.005 vs. ND treated with the same dose of RA;

  • P < 0.005 vs. fetuses of the same diabetic state without RA. Fetuses analyzed at 18.5 dpc.