TABLE 1

Plasma counterregulatory hormone and pancreatic polypeptide concentrations

Nondiabetic subjects
Type 1 diabetic subjects
HypoHypo + mealPHypoHypo + mealP
Glucagon
 AUC (ng · 1−1 · min−1)163 ± 25248 ± 290.018100 ± 9193 ± 250.011
 Cmax (ng/1)182 ± 26272 ± 280.004118 ± 10208 ± 300.003
Adrenaline
 AUC (nmol · l−1 · min−1)3.1 ± 0.44.5 ± 0.60.0371.7 ± 0.52.9 ± 0.50.043
 Cmax (nmol/l)3.9 ± 0.55.1 ± 0.840.112.2 ± 0.63.3 ± 0.820.095
Noradrenaline
 AUC (nmol · 1−1 · min−1)3.2 ± 0.23.8 ± 0.30.0452.1 ± 0.33.1 ± 0.30.005
 Cmax (nmol/l)3.8 ± 0.294.5 ± 0.350.0372.7 ± 0.263.6 ± 0.360.011
Cortisol
 AUC (μg · dl−1 · min−1)16.8 ± 2.417 ± 2.20.72115.2 ± 2.315.7 ± 2.30.117
 Cmax (μg/l)21 ± 2.222 ± 2.40.60816.7 ± 1.818.8 ± 2.20.093
Growth hormone
 AUC (μg · 1−1 · min−1)17.8 ± 3.211.3 ± 3.70.07326.4 ± 4.222 ± 3.50.138
 Cmax (μg/l)35.8 ± 5.525.9 ± 4.60.06242 ± 7.035 ± 5.50.058
Pancreatic polypeptide
 AUC (pmol · 1−1 · min−1)159 ± 12217 ± 220.008136 ± 7200 ± 150.001
 Cmax (pmol/l)189 ± 9231 ± 240.022148 ± 6219 ± 6.50.010
  • Data are means ± SE. P values calculated from hypo vs. hypo + meal comparisons.